Human resource management is that part of management which is directly concerned with the people employed in an organization. It involves procuring, developing and maintaining a competent work force so as to achieve the goals of organization efficiently and effectively.
In short, resource management may be defined as all those organizational activities which involve obtaining, utilizing and maintaining an effective and satisfied work force.
Human resource management covers all those activities designed to provide for and coordinate the human resources of an organization, who collectively and individually contribute to achievement of the organizations objectives.
Human Resource Management is a modern term for what has traditionally been referred to as Personnel Management. Human Resources Management differ from Personnel Management in that personnel management is narrower and clerical oriented, it dealt more with personnel records and sometimes with recruitment and selection. The functions of Human Resources today are much wider.
HRM has its origins in the United States in the 1950s. It did not however gain wide recognition until the beginning of the 1980s in the UK. A number of reasons contributed to the growth of the HRM, among them included:-
The pressures experienced during the recessing of 1980-82 and the growing recognition in the USA that trade union influence in collective employment was reaching few employees. There was also the issue of growing competition from Japan.
There was also a move in UK of the government to reform and reshape the existing model of industrial relations and come up with more employee oriented policies in management.
The emergence of excellence literature such as “In Search of Excellence” Tom Peters & Waterman in 1982 which advocated for motivation of employees involved management styles also had their contribution.