ATD NOTES / DCM NOTES – INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY PDF AND HARD COPY NOTES

INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY

 

 

ATD LEVEL I

DCM LEVEL I

 

STUDY TEXT

 

GENERAL OBJECTIVE

This paper is intended to equip the candidate with knowledge, skills and attitudes that will enable him/her to apply fundamental information communication technology (ICT) skills in business

LEARNING OUTCOMES

A candidate who passes this paper should be able to:

  • Demonstrate knowledge of computer systems
  • Select appropriate computer hardware and software
  • Use various computer application packages
  • Select various types of information systems
  • Use computer networks and the Internet

CONTENT

  1. Introduction to ICT
  • ICT overview
  • Types of ICTs
  • Information centres
  • Uses of ICT in business
  • Impact of ICT in society
  1. Computer systems
  • Overview of a computer system
  • Evolution of computers
  •  Elements of a computer system
  1. Computer hardware
  • Overview
  • Input devices
  •  Output devices
  •  Processing devices
  • Storage devices
  •  Communication devices
  •  Factors that determine the processing power of a computer ◊ Selection and acquisition of computer hardware

 Computer software

  • Overview of computer software
  • System software 
  • Application software
  • Other utility software
  •  Computer programming languages
  •  Selection and acquisition of computer software

 Introduction to operating systems

  • Overview of an operating system
  •  Functions of an operating system
  • Types of operating systems
  • Computer booting
  • Selection and acquisition of operating systems
  1. Computer files
  • Elements of a computer file
  • Types of computer files
  •  Basic file design and storage
  • File organisation
  •  File access methods

 An overview of application packages

  • Word processing
  • Features of word processor
  • Formatting and editing text
  • Creating and formatting tables Spreadsheets
  • Features of a spreadsheet program
  • Formatting and editing spreadsheet
  • Formulas and functions
  •  Charts and graphs
  • Features of presentation program
  • Typing and formatting text in slide
  • Slide show
  •  Computerised accounting software
  • Capturing data
  • Features of accounting software

Overview of information systems

  • Systems overview
  •  Information systems
  •  Components of an information system
  •  Role of information systems in an organisation
  • Classification of information systems
  •  Types of information systems
  •  Overview of information systems security and controls

 Computer networks

  • Computer networks concepts
  • Computer network hardware and software
  • Data transmission media
  • Types of computer networks
  • Advantages and limitations of networking

The Internet

  •   Applications of Internet
  • Using search engines o E-mails
  • Electronic communication
  • Introduction to the Internet
  • Internet services – e -mails,
  • WWW, instant messaging
  • Searching for information on the Internet
  •  Internet service providers (ISPs)
  • Applications of internet
  • Impact of internet on society

 Emerging issues and trends

 

CONTENT                                                                                     PAGE

Topic 1: Introduction to ICT……………………………………………. 5

Topic 2: Computer systems……………………………………………..20.

Topic 3: Computer hardware………………………………………………41

Topic 4: Computer software………………………………………………….70

Topic 5: Introduction to operating systems………………………..……80

Topic 6: Computer files…………………………………………………………106

Topic 7: An overview of application…………………………………………119

Topic 8: Overview of information systems…………………………….….150

Topic 9: Computer networks……………………………………………………168

Topic 10: The Internet…………………………………………………………..190

Topic 11: Emerging issues and trends…………………………………..…219

KASNEB SAMPLE NOTES

 

TOPIC 1

INTRODUCTION TO ICT

 

OVERVIEW OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY

Information and communications technology (ICT) is often used as an extended synonym for information technology (IT). It is a more extensive term (i.e. more broad in scope) that stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals), computers as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware, storage, and audio-visual systems, which enable users to access, store, transmit, and manipulate information.

The term ICT is also used to refer to the convergence of audio-visual and telephone networks with computer networks through a single cabling or link system. There are large economic incentives (huge cost savings due to elimination of the telephone network) to merge the telephone network with the computer network system using a single unified system of cabling, signal distribution and management.

However, ICT has no universal definition, as “the concepts, methods and applications involved in ICT are constantly evolving on an almost daily basis.”The broadness of ICT covers any product that will store, retrieve, manipulate, transmit or receive information electronically in a digital form, e.g. personal computers, digital television, email, robots.

KASNEB SAMPLE NOTES

TOPIC 2

 

COMPUTER SYSTEMS

 

OVERVIEW OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

 

Introduction

A computer is a device that can receive, process and store data. They are used as tools in every part of society together with the Internet. Computers nowadays are complex; there are a lot of different components inside them, and they all serve different purposes. They all need to work together for the computer to work; knowing how a computer works makes it easier to use a computer being able to understand how a computer will respond.

A computer system is a system of interconnected computers that share a central storage system and various peripheral devices such as a printers, scanners, or routers. Each computer connected to the system can operate independently, but has the ability to communicate with other external devices and computers.

KASNEB SAMPLE NOTES

TOPIC 3

 

COMPUTER HARDWARE

 

Hardware represents the physical and tangible components of a computer i.e. the components that can be seen and touched.

Examples of Hardware are following:

  • Input devices — keyboard, mouse etc.
  • Output devices — printer, monitor etc.
  • Secondary storage devices — Hard disk, CD, DVD etc.
  • Internal components — CPU, motherboard, RAM etc.

Components of a computer

All types of computers follow a same basic logical structure and perform the following five basic operations for converting raw input data into information useful to their users.

KASNEB SAMPLE NOTES

TOPIC 4

COMPUTER SOFTWARE

 

OVERVIEW OF COMPUTER SOFTWARE

Software is detailed step-by-step sequence of instructions known as programme which guide computer hardware. A computer programme is a sequence of instructions that tell the computer hardware what to do. Programmes are written in (programming) languages, which consist of a set of symbols combined according to a given syntax.

A programme must be in main memory (RAM) to be executed. These invisible, intangible components of a computer that direct and control the operations of the hardware when processing data are referred to as software.

Features of software

  1. An operating system is a program that acts as an interface between the software and the computer hardware.
  2. It is an integrated set of specialised programs that are used to manage overall resources and operations of the computer.
  3. It is specialised software that controls and monitors the execution of all other programs that reside in the computer, including application programs and other system software.

KASNEB SAMPLE NOTES

TOPIC 5

 

INTRODUCTION TO OPERATING SYSTEMS

 

OVERVIEW OF OPERATING SYSTEMS

An operating system (OS) is a collection of software that manages computer hardware resources and provides common services for computer programs. The operating system is a vital component of the system software in a computer system.

An operating System (OS) is an intermediary between users and computer hardware. It provides users an environment in which a user can execute programs conveniently and efficiently.

In technical terms, It is a software which manages hardware. An operating System controls the allocation of resources and services such as memory, processors, devices and information.

Definition

An operating system is a program that acts as an interface between the user and the computer hardware and controls the execution of all kinds of programs.

KASNEB SAMPLE NOTES

TOPIC 6

 

COMPUTER FILES

 

ELEMENTS OF COMPUTER FILES

Files stored on magnetic media can be organised in a number of ways, just as in a manual system. There are advantages and disadvantages to each type of file organisation, and the method chosen will depend on several factors such as:

  1. How the file is to be used.
  2. How many records are processed each time the file is updated.
  3. Whether individual records need to be quickly accessible.

A file is a collection of data, usually stored on disk. As a logical entity, a file enables you to divide your data into meaningful groups, for example, you can use one file to hold all of a company’s product information and another to hold all of its personnel information. As a physical entity, a file should be considered in terms of its organization.

File organization refers to the logical relationships among the various records that constitute the file, particularly with respect to the means of identification and access to any specificIetord. File structure refers to the format of the label and data blocks and of any logical record control information. The organization of a given file may be sequential, relative, or indexed.

KASNEB SAMPLE NOTES

TOPIC 7

 

AN OVERVIEW OF APPLICATION PACKAGES

 

 

WORD PROCESSING

Word processing is an application program that allows you to create letters, reports, newsletters, tables, form letters, brochures, and Web pages. Using this application, program you can add pictures, tables, and charts to your documents. You can also check spelling and grammar.

Main features of word processing applications:

  1. Create professional documents fast, using built-in and custom templates
  2. Easily manage large documents using various features like the ability to create table of contents, index, and cross-references
  3. Work on multiple documents simultaneously
  4. With the help of mail merge, you can quickly create merge documents like mass mailings or mailing labels
  5. AutoCorrect and AutoFormat features catch typographical errors automatically and allow you to use predefined shortcuts and typing patterns to quickly format your documents.
  6. The print zoom facility scales a document on different paper sizes, and allows you to print out multiple pages on a single sheet of paper.
  7. The nested tables feature supports putting one table inside another table. ∑ Export and save your word documents in PDF and XPS file format.
  8. Batch mailings using form letter template and an address database (also called mail merging);
  9. Indices of keywords and their page numbers;
  10. Tables of contents with section titles and their page numbers;
  11. Tables of figures with caption titles and their page numbers;
  12. Cross-referencing with section or page numbers;
  13. Footnote numbering;
  14. New versions of a document using variables (e.g. model numbers, product names, etc.)

KASNEB SAMPLE NOTES

TOPIC 8

 

OVERVIEW OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS

 

SYSTEMS OVERVIEW

A system is a set of related components, which can process input to produce a certain output. Every system requires a form of data input. For example, an ATM machine accepts data when you enter the PIN number. A washing machine accepts data when you select the start buttons. They process the inputs and produce their respective output

INFORMATION SYSTEM

Information system, an integrated set of components for collecting, storing, and processing data and for delivering information, knowledge, and digital products. Business firms and other organizations rely on information systems to carry out and manage their operations, interact with their customers and suppliers, and compete in the marketplace. For instance, corporations use information systems to reach their potential customers with targeted messages over the Web, to process financial accounts, and to manage their human resources.

KASNEB SAMPLE NOTES

TOPIC 9

 

COMPUTER NETWORKS

 

COMPUTER NETWORK CONCEPTS

A computer network is a communications system connecting two or more computers that work to exchange information and share resources (hardware, software and data). A network may consist of microcomputers or it may integrate microcomputers or other devices with larger computers. Networks may be controlled all nodes working together equally or specialized nodes coordinating and supplying all resources. Networks may be simple or complex, self – contained or dispersed over a large geographical area.

Network architecture is a description of how a computer is set-up (configured) and what strategies are used in the design. The interconnection of PCs over a network is becoming more important, especially as more hardware is accessed remotely and PCs intercommunicate with one another.

KASNEB SAMPLE NOTES

TOPIC 10

 

THE INTERNET

 

APPLICATION OF INTERNET

 

 USING SEARCH ENGINE

Using search engines (text guides)

On the internet, you can find information on just about any topic you can think of.

If you’re looking for information, or if you want to visit a website and you don’t know the website address, you can use a search engine to help you find what you’re looking for.

Search engines are websites that search the internet for you and give you a list of search results.

Search engines can search for more than just written information.

Depending on the search engine you’re using, you might also be able to search for other online content like images, video content, books and news, as well as products and services.

You can also search for online maps and directions to help plan your travel from one place to another.

Accessing a search engine

You can use a search engine on most internet-connected devices.

Once the device is connected to the internet and you have opened your internet browser software, enter the website address for the search engine into the address field.

KASNEB SAMPLE NOTES

TOPIC 11

 

 

EMERGING TRENDS IN INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY

 

Introduction

21st century has been defined application of and advancement in information technology. Information technology has become an integral part of our daily life. According to Information Technology Association of America, information technology is defined as “the study, design, development, application, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems.”

Information technology has served as a big change agent in different aspect of business and society. It has proven game changer in resolving economic and social issues. Advancement and application of information technology are ever changing. Some of the trends in the information technology are as follows:

Cloud Computing

 One of the most talked about concept in information technology is the cloud computing. Clouding computing is defined as utilization of computing services, i.e. software as well as hardware as a service over a network. Typically, this network is the internet.

 Cloud computing offers 3 types of broad services mainly Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS) and Software as a Service (SaaS).

 Some of the benefit of cloud computing is as follows:

 

KASNEB SAMPLE NOTES



(Visited 1,379 times, 1 visits today)
Share this:

Written by 

One thought on “ATD NOTES / DCM NOTES – INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY PDF AND HARD COPY NOTES”

  1. Pingback: My Homepage

Leave a Reply