Geographical structures

Hybrid design

Has both divisional units and functional departments located at the corporate HQS. A company may have HR department located at the HQs. The HR department will serve all other divisions / branches by  carrying  out  recruitment,  training  and  maintenance  of  employee’s  files.  In  doing  so  the organization is able to eliminate the need for the entire HR staff in each division/branch. This type of design works best where each division of the organization has departments similar to those of other branches. Banks are examples of organizations which use the hybrid design

Matrix Structures/2 Boss structure

This is a combination of functional department and product or customers or process departmentation. This structure is known as a 2 boss structure. Most organizations implement functional,  divisional  or  hybrid  structural  designs.  However  not  all  managers  believe  that  these designs can satisfy the needs of their organizations effectively and efficiently.

The matrix design may be the solution to managers who believe that other designs are inadequate. Matrix design is a unique structural arrangement because it implements both functional and divisional functions simultaneously. The result is a system characterized by employees in each department being supervised by 2 bosses. One is a functional manager at the corporate HQ and the other is a divisional manager i.e. a system of dual authority.authority system.

5..Functional Structures.


Delegation is the process of assignment of work from the top levels of management to the lower levels within the organization. The authority is normally delegated and it should correspond to the responsibility, and trusted upon a subordinate.

Authority is the right to give orders and the power to exert obedience while power is the product of personality to specific situation. It is the ability of an individual to influence the actions of others. It cannot be delegated.

A responsibility on the other hand is an obligation to use authority to see duties performed. A person given authority and responsibility must recognize that the executive above him/her judge the quality of his or her performance. This means that the top executive has to ensure that the delegated authority has been used for the intended purposes.


It is the legitimate or lawful power to exert influence. It is the right to give orders and the power to exert obedience. It is the power to command to act not to act in the manner desired by possessor of


Features of authority

  1. Authority is a right to the person who posses it.
  2. It is positional
  3. It has only one source
  4. It must be accepted by the subjects
  5. It is associated with formal organizations
  6. It is granted in order to achieve organization goals
  7. It involves decision making
  8. It flows from the top going down the hierarchy
  9. Authority can be delegated.
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