TECHNIQUES OF CONTROL TYPES OF CONTROLS

TECHNIQUES OF CONTROL TYPES OF CONTROLS

The major types of controls are based on timing, consider the use of multiple controls, and contract cybernetic and noncybernetic types of controls.
Major control types TIMING
Using a system perspective, one can think of the productive cycle of an organization as encompassing inputs, transformation processes, and outputs that occur at different points in time. Accordingly at one major way of classifying control is based on their timing or stages in the productive cycle- in other words, on whether they focus on inputs, transformation processes, or out puts. Managers often have options regarding the stage in the transformation cycle at which they institute controls. The three respective types of controls based on timing are feedforward, concurrent and feedback.
FEED FORWARD CONTROL
Feed forward control focuses on the regulation of inputs to ensure they meet the standards necessary for the transformation process. Inputs that can be subject to feed forward control include materials, people, finances, time and other resources used organization.
Feed forward control attempts to evaluate potential inputs and reject or correct those that do not meet standards. The emphasis of feedforward control is on prevention in order to preclude later serious difficulties in the productive process. Feedforward control also is sometimes called preliminary control, pre control, preventive control or steering control.
CONCURRENT CONTROL
Concurrent control involves the regulation of ongoing activities that are part of the transformation process. To ensure that they conform to organizational standards. With concurrent control, the emphasis is on identifying difficulties in the productive process that could result in faulty output. Concurrent control sometimes is called screening or Yes-no control, because it often involves checkpoints at which determinations are made about whether to continue progress, take corrective action, or stop work altogether on a product or service. Since concurrent control involves regulating ongoing tasks, it requires a thorough understanding of specific tasks involved and their relationship to the desired end product. In other words, it must be possible to clearly specify standards for how various activities are to be conducted.
As you may have surmised, it can be difficult to use this type of control for endeavors that require creativity and innovation, such as creative advertising or conducting research and development. The reason is that, in such areas, it is typically not possible to specify exactly what to be done to achieve the desired results. Thus, when creativity and innovation are important, the emphasis is most often placed on feed forwardcontrol. (e.g. competent people, necessary equipment), as well as feedback control.
FEEDBACK CONTROL
Feedback control is a regulation exercised after a product or service has been completed in order to ensure that the final /output meets organizational standards and goals. Feedback control system sometimes called post action control or output control fulfils a number of important functions.
For one thing, it often is used when feed forward and concurrent controls are not feasible or are so costly. For example, suppose that you are the sales manager of a company that manufactures machine tools, even if it were possible for you to clearly specify the exact activities that lead to good sales (an unlikely prospect), it still would be difficult for you to use concurrent control beyond a minimum level (e.g. information about schedule contracts) to check on the specific ongoing task activities of each sales person in the field.
Therefore you would likely emphasize feedforward control carefully selecting new hires- new personnel and then use feedback control periodically comparing sales quotas (standard) with actual sales.
Feedback control also is often used when the exact processes involved in producing a product or service (e.g. performing complex surgery) are difficult to specify in advance. This type of control can also serve as a final means of checking for deviations that were not detected earlier. Recently, many major companies have been expending great efforts to improve quality so that either feedback control is unnecessary or there are a few deviations to detect and, hence very little scrap or rework to be done.
Another function of feedback control is providing information that will facilitate the planning process. Such information, which may include a number of units made or sold, cost of various aspects of production, quality measures, return on investment, or clients served, can be used in revising existing plans and formulating new ones.
Finally, feedback control provides output information that is particularly useful in the process of rewarding employee performance.
MULTIPLE CONTROLS
Organizations typically set up multiple control systems, systems that use two or more of the Feed forward, concurrent, or feedback control processes and involve several strategic control points are performance area chosen for control because they are particularly important in meeting organization goals. Multiple control systems develop because of the need to control various aspects of a productive cycle, including inputs transforming, and outputs.
When organizations do not have multiple control systems that focus on strategic control points, they often can experience difficulties that cause manageras to revaluate their control processes.

(Visited 2 times, 1 visits today)
Share this:

Written by