A system development methodology refers to the framework that is used to structure, plan and control the process of developing an information system. It refers to the steps that are used to form, plan, and control the process of developing an information system since it is virtually impossible to drive forward a project to computerize method without prior work. There is a need to have a methodological approach in order to meet the time against physical
and human constraints. One system development methodology may not be necessary suitable for use all projects
because each has its own recognized strengths and weakness. Each of the available methodologies is best suited to specific kinds of projects, based on various technical, organizational principles, project and team considerations.
The following are the some of the well-known systems development methodology:
a. Joint application design (JAD)
b. Rapid application design (RAD)
c. Waterfall Model
d. Prototype Methodology
e. Spiral Model – Design
f. System Development Life cycle (SDLC)
JOINT APPLICATION DESIGN (JAD)
Joint Application Development (JAD) is a requirements-definition and user-interface development methodology in which end-users, clients, and developers attend intense off-site meetings to work out and finalize software system.
It is created to speed up the design stage, here the user and manager and system analysts participates in a series of intense meetings to design the inputs (forms) and data and screens and outputs (reports) needed the new system. The purpose is to identify the stakeholder and executive goal and session are schedule in accordance to the user.
This methodology aims to involve the client in the design and development of an application. This is easily accomplished through a series of collaborative workshops called JAD sessions. JAD uses customer involvement and group dynamics to accurately depict the users view of the business need and to jointly develop a solution. Apart from allowing a faster development process, it minimizes errors at the same time. It also improves the quality of the final product focusing on the up-front portion of the development lifecycle, thus reducing likelihood of errors that are expensive to correct latter. This model mainly focuses on the business problem rather than technical details therefore, it is mostly suitable for developing any kind of business systems.
Advantages JAD Methodology:
i. Reduced system development time.
ii. Improve system quality and productivity.
iii. Reduces System development cost, i.e. labour cost for developers as well as users.
iv. Enhanced communication and relationship between business end-user and IT personnel.
v. Cultivates ownership, easier acceptance (buy in) and stronger commitments users. The more users contribute to the system, the easier for them to accept and commit to it.
vi. Enhance education for participants and observers. By participating in JAD and be the medium between other users and IT, the business end user will be kept fully informed about the progress of the system development.
vii. This methodology allows for the simultaneous gathering and consolidating of large amounts of information.
viii. This software development mode effectively produces large amounts of high-quality information in a short period of time.
ix. In this methodology, differences are resolved immediately with the proper assistance of the organizer.
x. This model provides a forum to explore multiple points of view regarding a topic.
Disadvantages of JAD Methodology:
i. JAD methodology takes a large amount of time as it requires significant planning and scheduling effort on the part of the project development team.
ii. It requires significant investor commitment in terms of the time and effort.
iii. This approach requires trained and experienced personnel for effective implementation of the entire project.
iv. More expensive and cumbersome if the group is relatively too large to the size of the project.
v. Some people might dominate the sessions.
vi. Without good preparation for a JAD session, Valuable time of professionals can be wasted easily.
vii. The wrong problem can be addresses if the wrong people are invited to participate.
viii. It requires getting all the different bodies of the organization (i.e. stakeholder and executive) together at the same time for an extended period of time . A project develop
a JAD method can only be successful if they are led a trained facilitator to keep discussion in the right direction.