A Knowledge of the Law
Members and Candidates must understand and comply with all applicable laws, rules, and regulations (including the CFA Institute Code of Ethics and Standards of Professional Conduct) of any government, regulatory
organization, licensing agency, or professional association governing their professional activities. In the event of conflict, Members and Candidates must comply with the more strict law, rule, or regulation. Members and
Candidates must not knowingly participate or assist in and must dissociate from any violation of such laws, rules, or regulations.
Independence and Objectivity
Members and Candidates must use reasonable care and judgment to achieve and maintain independence and objectivity in their professional activities.
Members and Candidates must not offer, solicit, or accept any gift, benefit, compensation, or consideration that reasonably could be expected to compromise their own or another’s independence and objectivity.
Members and Candidates must not knowingly make any misrepresentations relating to investment analysis, recommendations, actions, or other professional activities.
Members and Candidates must not engage in any professional conduct involving dishonesty, fraud, or deceit or commit any act that reflects adversely on their professional reputation, integrity, or competence.
INTEGRITY OF CAPITAL MARKETS
A Material Nonpublic Information
Members and Candidates who possess material nonpublic information that could affect the value of an investment must not act or cause others to act on the information.
Members and Candidates must not engage in practices that distort prices or artificially inflate trading volume with the intent to mislead market participants.
DUTIES TO CLIENTS
A Loyalty, Prudence, and Care
Members and Candidates have a duty of loyalty to their clients and must act with reasonable care and exercise prudent judgment. Members and Candidates must act for the benefit of their clients and place their clients’
interests before their employer’s or their own interests.
Members and Candidates must deal fairly and objectively with all clients when providing investment analysis, making investment recommendations, taking investment action, or engaging in other professional activities.
When Members and Candidates are in an advisory relationship with a client, they must:
a Make a reasonable inquiry into a client’s or prospective client’s investment experience, risk and return objectives, and financial constraints prior to making any investment recommendation or taking investment action and must reassess and update this information regularly.
b Determine that an investment is suitable to the client’s financial situation and consistent with the client’s written objectives, mandates, and constraints before making an investment recommendation or
taking investment action.
c Judge the suitability of investments in the context of the client’s total portfolio.
When Members and Candidates are responsible for managing a portfolio to a specific mandate, strategy, or style, they must make only investment
recommendations or take only investment actions that are consistent with the stated objectives and constraints of the portfolio.
When communicating investment performance information, Members and Candidates must make reasonable efforts to ensure that it is fair, accurate, and complete.
Preservation of Confidentiality
Members and Candidates must keep information about current, former, and prospective clients confidential unless:
1 The information concerns illegal activities on the part of the client or prospective client,
2 Disclosure is required law, or
3 The client or prospective client permits disclosure of the information.
DUTIES TO EMPLOYERS
In matters related to their employment, Members and Candidates must act for the benefit of their employer and not deprive their employer of the advantage of their skills and abilities, divulge confidential information, or
otherwise cause harm to their employer.
Additional Compensation Arrangements
Members and Candidates must not accept gifts, benefits, compensation, or consideration that competes with or might reasonably be expected to create a conflict of interest with their employer’s interest unless they obtain written
consent from all parties involved.
Responsibilities of Supervisors
Members and Candidates must make reasonable efforts to ensure that anyone subject to their supervision or authority complies with applicable laws, rules, regulations, and the Code and Standards.