1. Formal authority: This authority is drawn from organization hierarchy i.e. it is drawn from the position occupied the superior in the hierarchy.
  2. Competence/ technical authority: This the authority that flows from the knowledge or technical expertise of a person a person may not have formal authority their expert advise is sought for and carried out as orders.
  3. Acceptance theory: this is where the authority is drawn from the subject acceptance of that authority.


Power is the ability to exert influence or the ability to change altitude or behavior of individuals or groups. It is the ability to influence beliefs actions or behaviors

Features of power

  1. It is personal
  2. It can be both formal or informal
  3. Power has several sources
  4. It is not mandatory except for the formal authority
  5. Some power can not be delegated
  6. Power is subjective possessor of the power uses it the way he deems fit.
  7. Power can never be balanced

Distinguish between power and authority Power

  1. Power is personal
  2. Not all power can be delegated
  3. Power have several sources
  4. It is not mandatory
  5. It is not hierarchical
  1. Posses the power uses it the way he deems fit.


  • Authority is positional
  • Authority can be delegated
  • Authority has only one source
  • It must be accepted subjects
  • Authority flows from going downwards the hierarchy
  • Authority is granted in order to achieve organizational goals

Source of power

  1. Legitimate power:- This power is drawn from the organizational structure. In this case the influence acknowledges that the influence has a right.
  2. Reward power:- The possessor of this power has the ability to reward the influence if the he comes out the orders.
  3. Coercive power:- The power is based on influence ability to punish the influence for not obeying the orders.
  4. Referent power:- This power is based on the desire of the influence to be like or to be identified with the influence, Micheal Jackson.
  5. Expert power:- This power is based on the belief that the influence has specific knowledge or expert knowledge that influence don’t have.
  6. Charismatic power: This power is derived from once special quantity such as thinking ability interpersonal style etc. These quality attract other people and they want to be identified with such a leader.
  7. Association power:- This power is derived from associating with someone who has power e.g. president And First Lady


Delegation is a process which a senior gives part of his own authority to a subordinate to make decision or act. It means to entrust authority to a subordinate in certain defined areas and to make him responsible for the results.

Features of delegation

  1. Delegation occurs when a manager grant some rights to a subordinate.
  2. A manager cannot delegate the authority he doesn’t posses
  3. A manager can’t delegate all his authority
  4. Delegation doesn’t imply reduction in the status of the managers
  5. Delegation doesn’t mean abdication of responsibility.

Importance /need /advantages of delegation

  1. Delegation enhances creativity an innovation
  2. It reduces the managers work load
  3. It facilitates growth and expansion of the organization.
  4. Delegation is a means of training and developing the subordinates.
  5. The increasing size and complexity of modern organization call for specialization hence managers have to delegate.
  6. Mental and professional limitations imply that a manager can’t be an expert in all the fields therefore he should delegate to specialists to ensure efficiency and effectiveness.
  7. It enhances morale of the workers
  8. It leads to prompt action.
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