Public relations (PR) is a form of communication that involve creating understanding through knowledge and effecting change in commercial ,non commercial, private and public sector
Public relations (PR) refer to all forms of planned communication within and outside the organization for the purpose of achieving specific objectives and common understanding
PR DISTINGUISHED FROM COMMUNICATION RELATED FIELD
1.HOW PR DIFFER FROM ADVERTISING
- PR is not a form of advertising because it is much wider that advertising
- Pr relates to all communication of total organization while advertising is limited to product or service being sold
- Pr is not free advertising because it is time consuming and time is money. Money can be inform of staff salaries, equipment used in processing information etc.
- Advertising may not be used all organization but every organization is involved in public relation.\
- Pr involves everyone while advertising is limited to special buying tasks e.g promoting goods and services.
2.PR DISTINGUISHED FROM MARKETING
Marketing is management function responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer requirements profitably while pr is not profit oriented but aim at creation of awareness through provision of information .
3.PR DISTINGUISHED FROM SALES PROMOTION.
Sales promotion consist s of short-term incentive schemes usually at point of sale in order to facilitate more sales. it brings producer more closer to consumer due to closer contact than pr.
4.PR DISTINGUISHED FROM PROPAGANDA
Propaganda is a means of communication which might be true or false and its aim is gaining support for an opinion. Propaganda might be biased, lack evidence, full of self praise, false while PR information is based on facts ,evidence ,its unbiased, information is from reliable source, information is true etc.
5.PUBLIC RELATION DISTINGUISHED FROM PUBLICITY
Publicity is opposite of secret meaning the information is known the public i.e a bigger number but public relation is wider than publicity because it involves everyone.
PUBLIC RELATION PRACTICES /APPLICATION AREA.
- Informing the citizens about the government policies, achievement and challenges
- Institution communicate the services they offer to the public.
- Promotional opportunity –to inform the public of changes in organization activities which call for public relation to make wider publicity.
- Competation-pris used to overcome resistance.
- Catastrphe-Announcements of any unfavourable issues .
- Controversy-To eliminate the contradicting conditions in between organization and the public and create clarity of misleading information.
7,Pr is taught as a subject in institutions for higher learning to equip the students on healthy interaction within and outside the workplace.
ROLE OF PUBLIC RELATION IN SALES AND MARKETING
- Pr helps in launching new products through advertising
- Promotes good customer relation when dealing with customers
- Promotes good corporate image when good things are said about the organization which complements the success of sales and marketing.
- Pr increase customer knowledge about the product through provision of product information i.e place promotion ,price etc
- Pr widens the product awareness because its wider than sales and marketing.
REASONS WHY PROPAGANDA IS SUCCESSFUL TOOL IN PR
1.Message spreads quickly
2.Not costly because its free i.e you don’t hire people to pass the information
3.Message is flexible to adjust
4Gains wide attention from the audience
1.USING RELEVANT EXAMPLES EXPLAIN EVOLUTION OF PR
Hr is a discipline within resource management which addresses interpersonal behavior within the workplace.
2.is study of group of people for the purpose of improving interpersonal relationship among employees and their public at large.
COMPONENTS OF HUMAN RELATIONS
2.Good listening and understanding others
POSITIVE QUALITIES OF HUMAN RELATION
1.Being honest-Employees and customers should be true to their duties.
2.Hardworking-Emloyees should be committed to their duties so as to achieve organization goals.
3.Fairness-Employees should be able to serve without discrimination
4.Creative-should be able to discover new and better ways of doing things so as to contribute to organization programmes.
5.Competent-Any employee should be competent both at place of work and social life.
6.Ability to relate with different types of people in a professional manner.
MANAGING DIFFICULT PEOPLE IN AN ORGANIZATION.
Involves ways which facilitate togetherness in entire organization including those who are rebellious.
- Involving them in decision making process so that their opinion could be debated also.
- Assigning them leadership tusks in area of work though depending on qualification.
- Outlining organization core mission and vision which acts as their guiding principle in their work.
- Involving them in personal dialogue with their seniors so as to identify their problem and solution.
- Punishing the wrong doers depending on organization activity though a rare case but a common means is use of apology.
OBJECTIVES OF GOOD HUMAN RELATION.
- Satisfying employee needs as well as organizational objectives.
- Promoting employee motivation and workplace morale through involving them in decision making and effective communication.
- To strengthen and appreciate human effort providing training and developments.
- Promoting job satisfaction through provision of good working condition ,fair wages and salary, good communication etc
- To promote togetherness and easy achievement of organization goals in addition to minimal supervision .
- To provide fair and acceptable leadership.
- To facilitate easy conflict resolution within the organization and the customers which promotes good image of the organization to the public.
CHALLEGES FACING HUMAN RELATION.
- Globalization-increasing international competition is changing the way organization do their work hence a challenge to employers to update to the changes which may be expensive.
- Unemployment-due to adoption to changes in technology e.g use of ATM, Computers etc.
- Innovation is hindered due to use of machines.
- Inadequate resources hence making it hard to satisfy employee requirements.
- Stiff competation from their rivals.
PUBLIC RELATION DEPARTMENT.
Internal or external pr department may be small or large depending on;
1.The size of the organization
2.The value placed on pr management.
3.Financial position of the organization
4.The nature of the activities undertaken organization. i.e The possible staffs in pr department include pr manager, assistant prmanager, photographers, print and publication officers etc.
PUBLIC RELATION MANAGER
Refer to the chief executive officer who manages the company public relation.
- 1.To advice management on communication problems, solution and techniques.
- 2.To inform the public on organization policies and activities
- 3.To monitor outside opinions about the organization.
- 4.To establish and maintain a good image of the organization.
- 5.To set targets or define objectives for pr operation
- 6.To estimate the working hours and other resources that need to be coasted.
- Selecting the appropriate media to use while communicating with customers/communicating organization activities.
WAYS A PR MANAGER CAN BOOST HIS/HER SUCCESS
- PR manager must keep top management well briefed for interviews, speeches, representing the organization in public occasion and updating them on day to day changes.
- Pr manager should create external lines of communication in order to achieve feedback.
- Should be competent in order to carry work with high efficiency
- Setting internal lines of communication so that information can be obtained at all times in all sections of the organization.
- Creating external lines of communication in order to diversify source of information.
PR DEPARTMENT ACTIVITIES
- Handling pr sponsorship.
- Trainning pr staffs in order to promote competence.
- Representing the company in external meetings.
- Arranging press, radio and tv interviews in order to communicate organization activities or achievements.
- Maintaining media information service through maintaining healthy relationship with key media personnel.
- Analysing pr feedback and matching them with the set objectives.
ADVANTAGES OF PR MANAGER WITHIN ORGANIZATION (IN-HOUSE PR MANAGER).
- Pr manager is more familiar with the organization than the pr manager from consultancy firm
- pr manager can easily establish lines of communication inside the organization hence getting reliable information.
- Pr manager is in a better position to give management day to day advice.
- The pr manager is readily available hence can make quick decision in case of emergency
- The manager may be able to consult from other organizations at a free cost.
- It promotes corporate identity of the organization.
- Pr manager may be soo close to organization workers hence portraying discrimination and being biased in decision making.
- In small and disorganized organizations, pr manager may lack job specification hence making it hard to achieve required tusks.
- pr manager may lack sufficient executive status to enjoy the respect of management e.g if his /her subordinates have higher education level than him /her.
- If the pr manager is not properly trained and qualified he /she could contribute to downfall of organization.
- May lack skilled personnel’s within the department and limited work experience due to lack of exposure in various activities.
PUBLIC RELATION CONSULTANCY/AGENTS
Refer to provision of technical, creative and specified services reason of experience and training and having legal corporate identity.
ADVANTAGES OF SEEKINGSERVICES FROM CONULTANCY FIRMS
- PRC are more equipped with pr tools compared to in-house pr department because they perform variety of tusks
- PRC have more experience because of handling different clients hence competence in work performance.
- Prc are not biased in decision making because they are independent from the organization/customers they are serving.
- External PRC are usually located at urban centre’s hence are easily accessible due to better social amenities in urban centres.
- If the services organization are not frequently seeked its more cost effective to seek the services from PRC than hiring a permanent in-house pr-manager.
- Their services are limited to amount payed.
- PRC lack detailed knowledge concerning the organization in terms of procedures, systems and rules.
- PRC are not able to establish internal lines of communication hence their services may not be perfect compared to in-house pr-manager.
- PRC serve many clients hence have divided loyalties an not committed to specific organization.
- PRC are not in a position to make quick decision incase of an emergency.
FACTORS TO CONSINDER WHILE SELECING A CONSULTANCY FIRM TO SEEK THE SERVICES FROM.
- COST-one should select the most cost effective consultancy firm depending on financial position of the organization.
- COMPETATIVE ADVANTGE- One should consider if the consultancy firm are offering something different from other consultants apart from the key services .e.g customer advice, free packaging materials, free calendar etc
- TOOLS AND EQUIPMENTS-one should consider if the consultancy firm have all the necessary requirements depending on the services being seeked.
- JOB EXPERIENCE –must consider if they have competence personnel’s necessary depending on service being seeked.
- AVAILABILITY – consider their working hours and number of staffs because it determine timely accomplishment of tusks.
- Consider if they are registered i.e legal entity or they are operating legally.
DETERMINANTS OF CONSULTANCY FEE
- Time taken to carry pr activity.
- T he cost of materials to be used
- Salary to workers
- Administration cost e.g rent ,water and electricity bills ,regulatory requirements e.g business permits, licence etc.
- Economic situation in the country e,g inflation, deflation.
EXAMPLES OF SERVICES PROVIDED BY CONSULTANTS.
- Offering financial analysis and advice.
- Facilitating recruitment and training process.
- Marketing and sales promotion
- Managing communication of organization activities.
- Announcements and briefing e.g advertisement.
Publics are those group of people within and outside the organization whom the organization communicate with.
- Different organizations have different publics depending on the activities they are undertaking.
- Public relation is creation of common understanding with the public’s.
- The most common publics that most organizations interacts with include;
1.THE COMMUNITY -They are the neighbors’ near where the organization is located. Its not a must they be organization customers but they contribute to either success or failure of organization. possible ways an organization can can promote good relation with its community include a. Provision of street light within organization area.
b. construction of safe foot path
c. participating in community programmese. gharambee, sch,roads,hospital construction.
d. Involving some of local community members in some of the organization jobs though depending on their qualifications.
2.EMPLOYEES-Refer to workers within the organization. Even for computerized organization they cant do without human labour.
3.DISTRIBUTORS – Refer to everyone concerned with bulk breaking, transferring the products near the customers etc . Depending on size of organization and its activities it can either have internal or external distributors or both.
4.SUPPLIERS – Refer to one of publics that delivers necessary tools and equipments needed for organizations operation at a cost. Each organization should ensure good relationship with its suppliers in orderto avoid unhealthy interruption of organization activities. This is done through paying them on time, communicating to them of any changes that might affect them etc.
5.CUSTOMERS – Refer to the end-beneficiary of organization products and services. Organization should relate well with its customers so as to retain them, attract new ones, satisfy their desires and build good corporate identiy.This facilitates maintaining them and not switching to the competitors.
6.GOVERNMENT – Organizations or individuals should ensure healthy relationship with the Government through complying with the legal requirements e.g offering quality services, paying the tax, paying business permits etc.the Government can either be represented Local government, County government or national government
- FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS -Are institutions dealing with receiving deposits from their customers and issuing the loans .The customers should maintain good relationship with the bank through paying the loans on time.
8.TRADE UNIONS-Refer to employee associations/movements formed to fight for the rights of its workers. They exerts a powerful influence on commercial, industrial and political bodies in order to fight for better services for its workers.
9.INVESSTORS – Are people who mobilize savings and put money into working capital in relation to organization activities.
IMPORTANCE OF DEFINING THE PUBLICS
- Its cost effective because the organization does not make unnecessary speeding targeting the wrong audience.
- It helps an organization to concentrate with its publics hence building a healthy relationship with them
- Reduces the risks especially while introducing/launching new products/services. The risks can be inform of loss, resistance, unhealthy competition etc.
- Facilitating building of long term relationship
- To avoid wastage of resources i.e time and money.
CONSEQUENCES OF NOT DEFININGTHE PUBLICS.
- The results does not match with the set objectives because of targeting wrong publics.
- Wastage of resources on wrong audience.
- High resistance from the public especially when launching new products.
- Same message can be repeated to the same group.
- High possibility of losses due to targeting wrong audience.
- NB the public’s CUSTOMERS changes depending on institution activities e.g in learning institutions they are called STUDENTS, in hospitals-patients, in transport-passengers etc.
CONSEQUENCES OF BAD PUBLIC RELATION.
- Bad corporate image.
- Low profits margins/huge losses
- Resistance from either internal or external publics
- Loss of customers to your competitors due to poor services or mistrust.
- Unhealthy interruption of organization activities e.g due to delay in supply, lack of financial services etc.
ETHICS AND FUNCTIONS OF PR PERSON reNELS
Ethics is code of acceptable haviour that facilitate good relationship between an individual and the general public(s)
Ethics facilitating building of long term relationship, building respect,trust etc
GENERAL CODE OF CONDUCT EXPECTED FROM EMPLOYER
1.Provide good working condition to employees.
2.Should encourage democratic leadership in order to minimize mis-understandings within the organization.
3.Should be able to carry fair promotions without discrimination e.g based on work experience, education level etc
4.Should be able to promote team work within organization hence working towards achieving common goal.
5.Paying employees on time in order to boost their work morale.
6.Carrying the outlined duties with high integrity i.e must be honest and transparent therefore not engaging in corruption.
GENERAL CODE OF CONDUCT FROM PR STAFFS
1.Only correct information should be published or broadcasted based on evidence and from reliable sources.
2.Thepersonnels carrying pr activities should ensure they meet legal requirements.
3.The information they pass should not injure reputation of on other person e.g giving wrong information that might turnish personality of an individual.
4.They should not publish or disclose confidential information unless when authorized law e.g revealing source of intelligence information which may cause insecurity to them.
5.High reputation should be portrayed while carrying the duties in order to boost corporate image of the organization they are working under ,gain public confidence and trust .
6.Should not misuse information regarding his/her employer for their own self benefit financially or other gains.
7 Respect other employees in order to facilitate togetherness and team building in order to work towards achievement of common goal.
TYPES OF GROUP WITHIN THE ORGANIZATION
Refer to possible interaction groups within the organization. They include
Refer to employees local arrangements within the work station for their own personal benefits and indirectly little or no benefits to the organization. Example include Merry go round and Chamas .They aim at
- improving living standards of the members
- Boosting their financial position
- Improving their living standards through common pool of resources.
- Educating the members on empowerment
- Uniting the members through sharing common interest.
CHARACTERISTICS OF INFORMAL GROUPS
- Mostly its formed to benefit the members
- Continuity of the group depends on the members.
- Group objectives are very flexible incase of making adjustments
- Leadership mostly depends on fame and majority likes and not education level.
- Mostly they are not registered hence not recognized outside organisation.
Refer to official groups which every employee within the organization should join e.g organization welfare, employee Unions, Committee membership etc.
CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL GROUPS
- The group has governing rules and regulation outlined in the constitution.
- The group has specific objectives and deadlines which can only be adjusted upon agreement committee.
- The group benefits is mostly to the organization in general and little benefits to individuals
- They are registered hence recognized within and outside the organization
- The group leaders have specific duties outlined to them
- Continuity of the group does not depend on dismissal/retirement of a member
- Leadership position depends on education level and experience.
FACTORS THAT INFLUNCE AN INDIVIDUAL ON THE GROUP TO JOIN.
- Financial position of an individual (i.e employer or employee)-different groups have different financial obligation to honour hence an individual should join depending on financial ability
- Group objectives/benefits- different groups have different activities hence One should join the group that best satisfy individual expectation.
- Job position-An individual may be influenced job position on the group to join because it influences individual fitness in the group in terms of contributing suggestions, interacting with other members, gaining respect etc
- 4.Education level-for formal organization education level contribute especially on leadership where individuals may be appointed as a result of education level and
- Size of the organization-well paying organizations contributes to success of groups and vice versa.
BENEFITS OF BOTH FORMAL AND INFORMAL GROUPS.
- There is individual empowerment e.g financially, skills ,experience etc
- Promotes unity through interactions, sharing common interest etc.
DISADVANTAGES OF FORMAL AND INFORMAL GROUPS
- Informal groups consumes organization working hours yet they are of little or no benefits to the organization.
- Informal groups may bring division within the organization especially between members and non members.
- Depending on their objectives, achievements and challenges they may affects corporate image negatively.
- Formal groups are of little benefits to the members
- Financial losses to members due to mismanagement of funds corrupt leaders
WAYS FORMAL AND INFORMAL GROUPS PROMOTES HUMAN RELATION IN AN ORGANIZATION
- Sharing of information hence promoting togetherness.
- Promotes work morale because individuals are able to fit in the workplace.
- Interactions among the members on social activities promotes healthy environment within organization.
- Completing employee living standards which employer is not able to provide.
- Facilitates togetherness which reduces resistance in leadership of organization core duties.
WAYS EMPLOYERS/MANAGERS CONTRIBUTE TO CONFLICTS WITHIN THE ORGANIZATION.
- Unfairness in job promotion e.g discrimination, corruption, tribalismetc
- Poor working condition to employees e.g not supplying them with necessary equipment that facilitate smooth operation of work, insecurity at work place etc
- Poor payment mode e.g late payments, low wages and salaries that does not compact with the state of economy.
- Pressure at work place e.g much restrictions, a lot of work, long working hours, denial of leave etc.
- Bad relationship with the employees e.g harassing them sexually ,unhealthy communication that shows no respect, not appreciating he work done employees etc.
WAYS EMPLOYEES CAN COPE WITH WORK RELATED PROBLEMS
- Increasing ones ability in performing duties and responsibilities through training in order to become more competent.
- Through adhering to rules and regulations of the organization so as to avoid issues due to acting contrary to organization governing principles.
- Improving on better communication skills and life skills which help one improve the relationship with the management and co-workers.
- Through knowing the hierarchy of authority within the organization so as to know who to address incase of an issue.
- Performing the duties at high efficiency in order to avoid wastage of time and resources
IMPORTANCE OF INVOLVING EPLOYEES IN DECISION MAKING
- It helps them also grow due to constant sharing of ideas with their senior management.
- They are more closer to the customers than managers hence source of reliable information.
- Due to constant involvement employees feel they have a duty to make more research in order to equip themselves with knowledge concerning the organization therefore contributing to innovation.
- Employees feel valued and appreciated when asked for an opinion the boss which makes them feel they are part of the organization which lower the late of job turnover.
- It makes employees feel they have a duty of communicating anything they feel can affect the organization negatively.
REASONS WHY MOST EMPLOYEES ARE NOT INVOLVED IN DECISION MAKING.
- It is time consuming due t o much consultations before drawing a conclusion in decision.
- When decision is made based on employees opinion it may contribute to loss of control in leadership i.e it undermines top management if their opinions does not go through.
- If employee opinion that was agreed upon leads to bad outcome the blame goes to the employer/manager hence the need to avoid them.
- Loss of control due to unclear source of instruction and decision.
It is the act of providing financial and material support for worthy projects or any beneficiary undertakings. A company can support a certain programme in aim of marketing its products or services as well as creating awareness of their existence. Sponsorship can be made to individuals or group e.g educational bursary, bursary, sports, trade exhibition etc. Even benefits to individuals is an indirect benefits to the public because they finally give services to the general public e.g .teachers, police or any public servant in general.
REASONS FOR SPONSORING and BENEFITS OF SPONSORING.
- 1.It promotes peace and unity through interactions e.g sports
- It creates employment opportunity .
- It advances interest of some activities e.g sports due to the benefits the participants get.
- Provide educational opportunities to the less fortunite in the community e.g Eguity wings to fly.
- It facilitates undertakings of events which are very expensive.
- To advertise the company/organization-The advert is made through displaying the company name and product within the area where sponsored event is taking place e.g through hanging banners and posters.
- To assist the marketing policy-when a sponsor gives financial support to something that interest potential customers and the company, it brings greater impact on marketing them complementing marketing objectives.
- To show a sense of social responsibility-Through giving support it shows the degree of concern to well being of community and nation at large hence good citizenship that promote growth of the nation.
- TO create good corporate image, respect and good will .
- Creating awareness of organization and its products.
CONSINDERATIONS BEFORE SPONSORING.
Before giving financial or material support a sponsor should ;
- Be certain of the objectives that one want to achieve after sponsoring e.g increase in sales, creating awareness, promoting corporate image etc
- Choose the best area of sponsorship which best satisfies the set objectives.
- Be aware of total cost i.e the finances that will be used in sponsorship and the expected
- Ensure the programme being sponsored is legal and comply with the law.
- Consider financial position of the organization in order to facilitate smooth operation.
EXAMPLES OF COMMONLY SPONSORED EVENTS
- Sports-Most organizations sponsor sports because it attracts media coverage and have high population of listeners and viewers which offers a good flat form for marketing.
- Education-involves bursaries, scholarship and other education to those who are financially challenged and facilitating further studies to best performers.
- Charitable organizations-include financial aids to orphans and disabled to help meet their basic needs and other necessities.
- Awards-its motivational awards made to best performers e.g musicians, best performing banks, athletes
- Local events-includes supporting local events that will bring growth and development in community in addition to creating good relationship.
- Tradeshow, agricultural show which aim at creating awareness of products and services in the market, their dynamics, cost, etc
1.Outline duties of a photographer in pr department.
2.Duties and responsibilities of a secretary.
3.Why is it that a sponsor should be a respected organization.
MEDIA OF PR ACTIVITIES
Media relation is relationship that company or organization develops with journalist while prextend the relationship behold media to general public. Media involves collective communication outlets or tools that are used to strore and deliver information to the public.
Press relation major role is to achieve maximum publication and broadcasting of pr information in order to create knowledge and understandings.
HOW TO ACHIEVE GOOD PRESS RELATION(i.e Things to observe in order to facilitate effectiveness of message delivery)
- Editorial policy-One should consider the media that is more common and attract customers attention more e.g T.V, Radio etc which provide a flat form of accessibility of the message to a bigger population.
- Circulation-One should know the extent of press circulation e.g regional, national or international.
- Distribution methods-Good press relation should be based on controlled circulation and not free circulation in order tfo facilitate accessibility of information to many people.
- Copy date-In order to achieve good press relation one should consider the last date of publication and the next inorder to ensure proper timing on delivery of message e.g Business letter, Magazines etc.
- Readership profile-What type of people are you targeting in order to facilitate effective designing of the message e.g the young, youth or the old.
- Healthy relationship with the target population and media personnel.
NB The above points are things that when observed facilitate effectiveness of message delivery.
Refer to information that is not always known to the public. News is not necessarily about current events but anything which interest the readers. News release is a public relation article and not an advertisement which gives information about organization products and services. Bad news release is bad pr.
WAYS OF FACITATING GOOD PRESENTATION OF NEWSRELEASE.
- .News release should be set out in manual script not in business letter style.
- The language used should be simple i.e avoid jargons which might hinder clarity of the message.
- The highlight should be eye catching in order to attract attention of either viewers or listeners.
- Should be brief and straight to the point i.e should be very summarized to safe time and avoid boredom both to viewers and listeners .It is facilitated through use of short paragraphs, short sentences and short words.
- Most important information should be placed on top page and highlight in a more eye catching colour
NB. While writing news release the subject should be stated in opening paragraphs which should be a summary of the whole story and should be short and brief to avoid boredom.
SEVEN POINT FORMULAR (SOLAADS) FOR NEW PRODUCTS/SERVICES.
S-Subject-What is the story about.
O-Organisation-What is the name of the organization.
L-Location-Where is the organization located.
A-Application-What are the uses,who are the users.
A-Advantages-What are the benefits of using the product or service.
S-Source-the origin of the product.
IMPORTANCE OF SEVEN POINT FORMULAR.
- It provides a checklist of data required before making news release.
- It’s a guideline indicating the sequence of information so that the information is presented in the same part of the story.
- It provides a checklist to apply while composing the message in order to see whether any vital information has been left.
NB It does not necessarily mean that the essay should have seven paragraphs but should ensure that all the essential information is captured in order to facilitates clarity of the message.
Refer to special occasions organized the media. The audience could be specialist individuals depending on type of the occasion, the participating companies and the general public if the event aim at addressing them. The TYPES of events include
- Press conference-it’s a meeting of journalist who are assembled to receive information which they discuss further. A press conference is a very simple activity or events where the catering is not to the maximum but can only be soft-drink because the event takes very short time.
- Press reception-it is a more organized events that takes much longer time due to variety of events e.g making speeches, demonstrations and presentations etc. The event may take weeks or months to organize and implement. The same information given in press conference is also given in press reception for further discussion. The difference is that press conference is just an highlight while press reception is more detailed.
- Facility visit-involves field work activities journalist. The event requires ,hospitality and overnight accommodation. It can be within or outside the country.
ORGANISING PRESS EVENTS
Refer to the preparation that need to be done in order to ensure effectiveness of prevents. It includes
- Planning the reception well in advance, selecting appropriate venue, date and time. The venue should be easy to access transport means, car packing facilities etc.
- State the days programme on the invitation card in order to give the audience an highlight of the days activities.
- Send out the invitation card to the named persons on time in order to avoid major absenteeism which might affect the organization success.
- Ensure everything required during the event is supplied on time e.g video cassettes, videorecorders, speakers, microphones etc.
- Identify the guests with badges so that they are easily differentiated from the general public.
REQUIREMENTS WHILE HANDLING MEDIA QUESTIONS.
- Confidence-one should show to the interviewers that you are sure of what you are saying therefore interviewee should avoid words like J THINK…,IDONT KNOW…. Etc. One should be able to give a satisfying answer
- Ability to think and react to the questions instantly. This builds trust to the listeners that the information is true.
- Creativity-incase of something you are not sure of ,one should be creative enough to give a satisfying answer .e.g Come back after one week.
- Friendly-one should not be hostile to interviewers no matter the situation one should be as calm as possible.
- Smooth and orderly response-the response should be a solution to the question asked. This facilitates avoidance of time wastage, boredom to the audience and bad image to interviewee.
EXAMPLES /TYPES OF MEDIA.
Its audio means commonly used since its readily available and cheaper compared to television. Programmes can be produced quickly and inexpensively and information is available even in local languages. Radio has some limitations e.g the listeners may lack any idea of how the product being advertised look like, problem of network in remote areas, round music can cause sound pollution.
Its electronic means of communicating that uses both audio and visual features.
- There is complete information about the product i.e both sound and the pictures.
- Its easily accessible in public areas e.g hotels
- Delivery of the message is more convincing to the customers.
- Production of t.v programme is time consuming compared to radio .
- Its expensive to buy .
- Problem of changes in technology
- Not easily accessible in rural areas without electricity.
Refer to display of information which is most eye catching at strategic places e.g roundabouts.
- The information last for long.
- Its cheaper compared to television adverts
- Involves words and pictures hence effective delivery of message.
- The information is limited to one area only.
- Threats from competing industries industries destroying the billboards
- It accommodates less information.
- The passer-may lack to pay attention to the information.
4.E-MAIL (ELECTRONIC MAIL)
It’s a means which one person can exchange message with other people over the internet through use os computers or smartphones.
- E-Mail message can be sent to the recipient mailbox at any time at senders convenience.
- Its fast means of delivering the message.
- E-mail information can be kept for long compared to information from phone calls.
- Records of e-mail message may be kept in electronic form therefore reducing filing problems and administration cost.
- Staffs may waste time on non-reproductive e-mails
- Sometimes information that is more urgent may fail to reach the recipient on time due to delays as a result of internet problems.
- E-mails may not guarantee individual security on message due to challenge from internet hackers.
- EXHIBITIONS-involves creating awareness through demonstrations, films, video shows, road shows etc.
- Exhibitions are open to a large and sometimes different range of audience which provide a platform to promote products and services to a large population.
- Being involved in exhibitions can provide one with opportunities to branch out to business partnership and create customer database
- Quick feedback is received on general opinion about the product through interacting with customers.
- Trade-shows and exhibitions require pre –arrangement on time hence are time consuming.
- Travelling expenses may be costly e.g hiring vehicles, tents, public address system etc.
- Stiff competition on demonstration from those offering similar services.
- Free samples and displays are costly.
- Targeting the wrong audience may be more expensive than expected benefits i.e if the target audience does not reciprocate positively.
BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVENESSOF DELIVERING PR MESSAGE.
- Wrong choice of medium-All media have their merits and demerits hence unsuitable medium may fail to deliver the information appropriately.
- Physical barriers-e.g poor roads, insecurity may hinder timely and efficiency of message delivery.
- Language barrier-It contributes to lack of common understanding between the sender and recipient of message.
- Psychological barriers-They results from social problems e.g attitude, resistance to change, poor retention of message, closed mind etc hinder efficiency of
- Choosing appropriate channels that will deliver information effectively.
- Good relation with public which facilitate reduction of message resistance.
- Communication should be well planned in order to reach the targeted audience.
- Right choice of language in order to facilitates understanding i.e avoiding language.
- Avoiding negative pre-judgement of message.
Refers to systematic process of collecting, analyzing and interpreting data into information to facilitate decision making. Marketing research embraces various types of research e.g competitors research product research, pricing research, distribution research etc.
- Desk research /secondary research-It is the study of the existing statistics ,survey and reports within or outside the organization.
- Field/primary/original research.-Refer to initial source of data which the interviewer comes into contact with respondent.
- Continuous research-Refer to survey which are carried out regularly through recording changes or trends e.g consumer survey.
- Ad-hoc research-Refer to one-off research which is made for a specific project only. The entire research is usually complete before the project starts.
FACTORS TO CONSINDER WHILE CHOOSING THE MEDIA TO USE.
- Cost-one should consider the media which is more cost effective in order not to affect other activities negatively. The amount paid to access service from media should be less than the expected benefits.
- Media coverage-depending on the targeted population, one should consider effectiveness of media that will reach all the audience e.g Local, National or International stations. More than one media can be used to facilitate maximum delivery of message.
- Urgency of the message-If the message is more urgent, the media that is fast to prepare the news should be used e.g radio.
- Content coverage-The media to be used should be able to cover the content in details in order to facilitate clarity of the message. E.g for an intake in progress its more appropriate to use newspaper than billboard.
- Competence of personnel working in the media-specific personnel influence attractiveness of the audience hence success in message delivery.
- Accessibility -one should consider the media that is accessible to the target audience. More than one media can be used depending on financial ability of informer in order to facilitate maximum delivery of message.
A budget is a statement which consist of the revenue and expenditure estimates for a particular period of time. The expenses estimates are first done then sources of revenue are adjusted to correspond with the expenses estimates.
REASONS FOR BUDGETING
1.The budget sets discipline for both expenditure and the planned activities hence good financial management avoiding unnecessary spending
2.After completion of pr programme, the budget acts as a checklist to measure if the set objectives were met and draw a conclusion if the budget was overestimated ,underestimated, or enough.
3.The budget facilitates forecasting of income based on expenditure.
4.To estimate the total cost that will be involved in carrying out pr programme.
ELEMENTS OF PR BUDGET
- Labour-includes salaries to the staffs involved within the pr department or a consultancy .labour is largest in pr budget since pr is labour intensive.
- Office overheads-includes both fixed costs and variable cost that are incurred during prprogrammes .e.grent,water and electricity bills.
- Tools and equipment-consists of all phordinatysical items that will be used during pr programmese.g video tapes ,speakers, microphones, prprogrammes.ftents,computers..
ADVANTAGES OF BUDGETARY CONTROL
- It facilitates reduction of cost.
- It guides the management in planning and formulating policies.
- It guides the management in research and development.
- It facilitates effective co-ordination of activities setting their limits and goals.
- It ensure maximization of profit though cost control.
QUALITIES OF A GOOD BUDGET CONTROL
- Goals should be clear
- Should have time bound.
- Adequate accounting system is essential to make the budgeting successful.
- Should be cost effective.
EVALUATING PR RESULTS
Refer to the ways that can be used to measure success or failure of pr programmes includes;
- By enquiries received-the more feedback and enquiries from the audience do suggest that the pr activities were successful.
- Accessing increased understanding and change-the difference between awareness before and after the pr activities.
- Matching the set objectives with the actual results
DEVELOPING THE PR STRATEGY.
Public relation strategy refer to systematic steps that facilitates proper identification of targeted audience, objectives,the right message, choosing the right media etc.
The pr strategy facilitates implementation of the PR activities. The plan also facilitates the proper utilization of the resources i.e through the help of the budget.
STEPS INVOLVED IN DEVELOPING PUBLIC RELATION STRATEGY.
- Establishing public relation objectives—refer to coming up with the results one would like to achieve after carrying the public relation activities e.g increase in awareness.
- Choosing the public relation message and media to use-Right message facilitate implementation of the set objectives. Some message may entail crisis management, community relation, building brand awareness etc. Right message facilitate overcoming fear, uncertainty and doubt. The message can only be effective if it targets the right audience and passed over appropriate media.
- Implementing the public relation plan-Involves carrying the actual pr activities.It includes passing the message to the targeted audience.
- Evaluating public relation results-it involves measuring the actual results and comparing them with the set objectives. If the set objectives are met it means the the pr activities were successful.
IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING PR PROGRAMME STRATEGY.
- In order to clearly identify the objectives to be achieved at the end of the programme.
- The lay-out plan acts as a checklist for making evaluation at the end of pr activities.
- The plan facilitates co-ordination of work hence performing pr activities in a logical manner without leaving important information.
- The plan minimizes wastage of time and resources which could have been spent in carrying unplanned activities.
- It facilitates building of focus and commitment towards accomplishment of pr activities.
- To estimates the working hours and other costs that might be involved to accomplish the activities.
- Facilitate selection of priorities which are more urgent than others.
Pr strategic plan on pr programmes involves situation analysis, identifying objectives, identification of targeted publics ,media selection, budgeting and evaluation of pr results. The plan should be able to clearly address the above factors.
QUALITIES OF A WELL PLANNED PROGRAMME.
- Should be clear and simple to understand.
- A good plan should have time plan showing the activities that will be carried out.
- Should be beneficial to both the sender and recipient of pr message
- Should be cost effective.
- Should be in line with the organization objectives.
QUALITIES OF GOOD OBJECTIVES
- Should be specific i.e clearly outline the exact goals without generalizing.
- Should be measurable.
- Should be achievable.
- Should be relevant I.e the intended goals should be in line with organization activities and should be legal.
- Should be time bound i.e clearly outline estimated time when the pr activities are to be completed.
FACTORS TO CONSINDER WHEN PLANNING FOR PR PROGRAMMES
- Appreciation of the situation-for pr programs to be effective, they must be based on sound objectives that are directed at the right audience, delivered at the right time and presented in an attractive and understandable language.
- Research tools-involves all means that are used to gather information, they include interviewing, holding discussions with management, use of questionnaires etc. While planning pr programs one should consider availability of research tools, reliability of the information etc.
- Security-While planning for public relation activities one should put into considerations security to both pr personnel’s and the respondent
- Education level of targeted audience-one should plan in advance on target audience in order to cater for both literate and illiterate.
- Defining pr objectives-different organizations have different pr objectives as they also have different risks ,profits margin etc most common pr objectives include –
- To change the organization image from the previous bad image or negative propaganda that might affect organization negatively.
- To improve good relation with the publics.
- Gaining press attention.
- Gaining support for survival.
- To educate the pubic
- To remind and reinforce influence.
- To strengthen the company against risks of takeover.
- To regain public confidence after a disaster.
Refer to process of building and maintaining relation with legislators and government officials so as to influence regulation.
REASONS WHY MOST ORGANIZATIONS ARE INVOLVED IN LOBBYING
- To facilitate making of profits through subsidies i.e government support.
- Pursuing of social services e.g free health services.
- Facilitating charitable services through polishing the turnished image.
- Facilitating good relationship with the government which boost smooth organization operation.
- To gain support financially through donations or be allowed to offer some services.
- To promote good corporate image.
- To monitor reports done on private developments.
- Drafting strategy documents on how review an monitoring is to be done.
- Providing access to public policy make-up or linking the public with public policy makers.
- Making presentation or giving agenda to decision makers.
- Acts as a policy adviser to policy management in issues related to the government, public affairs, politics etc.
QUALITIES OF A GOOD LOBBIEST
- Ability to monitor all lobbiest activities.
- Ability to report both to the client and policy makers.
- Ability to draft strategic document to be used in lobwork.
- Be familiar with public policy making and proceedings.
- Must have ability to communicate and explain policy formed policy makers
SPECIFIC AREAS OF PUBLIC RELATION.
Includes the common instances that call for pr attention. They include
- Sales and marketing.
- International marketing.
- Marketing research.
- Public relation management.
- g outbreak of a disease, war, drought etc.
ROLE OF PR IN INTERNATIONAL MARKETING
- Widening the market for the domestic products through creating awareness of their existence in foreigh countries.
- Building good name for the manufacturing industries and the country.
- Facilitate more foreign income from trade.
- Good public relation facilitates promotion of peace and unity among trading countries.
- Building identity of a country being associated with its product e.g coffee in Malawi, Oil in Libya etc.
- Promotes creation of good will between the organization and foreigners which may attract foreign donations and support to the company.
ROLE OF PR IN MARKETING RESEARCH.
- Provides the researchers with information concerning the market trends.
- Promotes improvements on the quality of the product depending on consumer demand.
- Provide basic understanding of the product to the interviewee.
- Consumer feedback accuracy is facilitated because they have some information about the
- e have rough idea of product or service.
- Facilitates cost efficiency making information available which minimize marketing research expenses.
EFFECTS OF ADOPTING MARKET EDUCATION STRATEGY.
- It helps to minimize sales resistance since from the market research delivery is based on consumer demand.
- Its easier for the sales force to achieve adequate distribution before advertising.
- It helps to reduce the cost of advertising
- It makes advertising more effective.
- It wins the customers confidence that the products are of high quality.
TECHNIQUES ADOPTED FOR MARKET EDUCATION.
Refer to different means that can be used to pass information aimed at educating the general public. Includes;
- Media relation e.g use of T.V, Radio
- Organising visits for dealers.
- Carrying special campaigns aimed at a particular target group to influence their opinion.
- Printed media e.g newspapers, magazines etc
- Use of social media e.g Twitter, Whatsapp, Facebook etc
INTERNAL AND EXTRNAL PR MANAGEMENT
Refer to areas that individuals, institutions and general public should adhere to to facilitate better operation. They include
- Employee relation-The organization should ensure good relationship between employer and employees so as to promote low job turnover, achievement of common objectives, minimal resistance in leadership etc .The employees should establish hierarchy of authority which channel their problems and acts as communication channel also.
- Crisis management-Each organization should be having strategies to solve problems incase they occur and compensation procedures for the victims.
- Corporate entity-Every organization should establish a good corporate image to the public because it is the one that reflects all the organization activities.
- Media relation-Organization should build good media relation since media will always reflect on its activities. This boosts corporate image, widening the market for organization services etc.
- Finance public relation-Organization should adhere to financial contracts e.g incase of a loan one should be able to pay on time. This builds trust for more financial support in future.
EMERGING ISSUES AND TRENDS IN PUBLIC RELATION
Refer to upcoming things that were not there in the past but are there currently that concern creating awareness to the public .They include:
- Increase in media relation-Media as a form of communication has expanded
- Through introduction of local stations both in the radio and t.v. This has facilitated expansion of pr activities due to access to information.
- Hacking-Information hacking has been increasing i.e the information is tracked without the knowledge of the owner. This may tamper the message if the information is altered and target the wrong group.
- Globalization-creation of awareness is going behold borders of a country i.e through international marketing. E. g trade,tourism,sharing of information through the media across the boarders has been facilitated through international stations e.g CCTV, BBC, International websites etc.