The MIS is an integrated man machine system that provides information to support the planning and control functions of managers in an organization .
Management has been viewed as be function, a process, a profession and a class of people. It refers to the kind of task and activities that are perform by managers. The specific nature of the activities is determined by such managerial functions as planning, organizing, directing, leadership and controlling.
1. Planning: It is the process of deciding in advance the courses of action to be followed and when and how to undertake these. Its objectives in the best possible manner and for anticipating future opportunities and problems.
2. Organizing: It is formal grouping of people and activities to facilitate achievement of the farm’s objectives. It is need for assigning responsibilities, jobs and hierarchy among personnel.
3. Controlling: It is the checking the progress of plans and correcting any deviations that may occur along the way.
4. Directing: It is the process of activating the plans, structure and group efforts desired direction. It is needed for implementation of plans by providing desired leadership motivation and proper communication.
The management can be group into 3 hierarchical levels –
• Top or Strategic management
• Middle or Tactical management
• Junior or Operational management
Top Management: – It is establishes the policies, plans, objectives and budget framework under which various departments will operate of the organization.
Middle Management: – It has the responsibility of implementing the policies and overall plans of the top management.
Junior Management:-It has the responsibility of implementing day to day operations and decisions of the middle management to produce goods and services to meet the revenue, profit and other goals. Information Information is the result or product of processing data. Information can be defined as the data which is organized and presented at a time and place so that the decision-maker may take necessary act.
- Information consists of data that has been retrieved, processed or otherwise used, for informative or inferential purposes, arguments or as a basis for forecasting.
- For example, some supporting documents, ledgers and so on, which comprise source material for profit and loss statements may be used by the decision maker for profit planning and control.
A system is a group of elements or components joined together to fulfil certain functions.
A system is made up of sub-system. The systems are either natural or man-made.
A sub-system which may be composed of further sub-systems. A subsystem itself is part of a super system.
The given example is that of an industrial (or factory) system. It has various subsystems such as production subsystem, marketing sub-system, personnel sub-system and financial subsystem.
These sub systems in turn are composed of further subsystem.
For example a production subsystem could consist of sub-sub-system of production control, material control, quality control etc.
The material sub-sub-system can be further broken down into ‘black boxes’ such as purchasing, stores, transportation, inspection etc.
This industrial system is a part of the large economic system of the country which may be called as the super system.