Library –is an  establishment in charge with the care of a books and making them available to those who requires.

A modern library is regarded as a service institution whose  aim is to enable users to make its resources and services

Information  center-is any institution that provides information  e.g books

Types  of libraries

School library-these are libraries established in a school environment to serve teachers and students they attend to equip students with knowledge so they can play their role in the society effectively

A modern school library is supposed to serve as a resource center .its collection comprises of textbooks ,literature materials ,magazine, charts e.t.c where  pa audio-visual aids for teaching are also part of the collection

Function of a school library

  • Provide for teachers requirement g textbooks reference materials e.t.c in line with the curriculum needs
  • To encourage and assist teachers to teach through the library in accordance with educational objectives this is done through assignment
  • Provide reading materials in all area and subjects where possible i.e. materials which are outside the curriculum.
  • Teach students on the use of a library i.e. the induction the do’s and the don’ts .
  • Great reading interest among students by means of story hours and library hours i.e. students are given an opportunity to read on their own in the library and recite to others what they have read .
  • Assist students to enjoy reading with choice and make profitable use of their leisure time.
  • Provide guidance to students in the use of books reference materials t.c give them skills to locate  needs materials on their own.
  • Encourage and provides facilities for Indipendent learning and self-propel facilities for Indipendent learning and self-propel study both inside and outside the syllabus

Academic  library

  • These are libraries which establish in colleges and universities
  • They are mostly expected to support the objective of the institution .these objective varies depending on the course offered but the ultimate is the production of manpower needed in the society
  • They mostly serve the information needs of trainers and trainees towards research and innovations.

Functions  of academic  library

  • Lending of information materials to both trainers and trainees based on their area of specialization
  • Assist users in locating and searching materials in the library. This is done through user educations
  • Providing trainers with advisory services when it comes to selective dissemination of information i.e. assist in acquisition of specific information
  • Reservation of documents on behalf of users i.e. keeping a document to user when it is returned in the library after being borrowed.
  • Inter-library lending (ill) getting of information materials from another library on behalf of the registered.
  • Holding of library exhibitions as well as displaying of new additions in the library.
  • Compilation of indexing and abstracting services for their user i.e. providing and summaries certain items.

National library

These are libraries which are responsible for acquiring and conserving all significant publication in a county they act as a deposit library by law.

They are normally founded or a ran by the national government e.g Macmillan library in Nairobi.

Functions of a national

  • Act as a central collection of a nation information material, through the legal deposit
  • They are empowered by the law to have a copy of all documents published in a country
  • Act as a central point for loan photocoping Centre for all foreign literature (material books)
  • Controls the issuance of materials from a foreign countries
  • It plants and co-ordinates ill as a supporting system to duplicate national collection and foreign collection i.e. a list of materials which have been published in a country within a given year.
  • It acts as a repository center (safe) for receiving storage and preservation as well as supply by photocopying of items withdrawn from other libraries i.e. acts as a dump site for unwanted materials from other libraries.
  • It undertakes professional training for staff of the national library (i.e. it organizes for further studies for their staff.)

Public library

  • These are libraries which serve the population of a community or a region at a nominal fee.
  • They are normal funded by the national government and mostly located in towns.
  • In Kenya such libraries are the Kenya national libraries services founded in all major towns in Kenya.

Functions of a public  library

  • Provides variety of information materials needed by users of all walks of life .they serve each and every category of users.
  • They support public education by providing educational materials based on various field of education.
  • They provide entertainment to their user by providing materials which of current natures e.g magazines newspapers and to some extent they have audio ,visual facility.
  • They engage in ill on behalf of their registered members e.  borrow materials from other libraries for their members.
  • The provide readers with advisory services i.e. they give guidance to individual when it comes to selection of document to read.
  • They stimulate good reading habits by bringing books and readers in close contact and this is done by organizing exhibitions ,road shows and open days.

Special library

These are libraries that exist to serve the conform of an institution or a body on their areas of profession or working environment .their use is limited to professions in a given field e.g law ,agriculture e.t.c


Provides information to enable users or members of an organization to keep pace or to keep track with significant development in the field of their interest..

Provides inspiration and stimulation to users by means of balanced collection and fire services

Selections and acquisition of documents for its members

Storage and retrieval of documents for members certain instance

Private  library

  • These are libraries which are primarily owned privately by an individual or a company
  • They are mostly found in our place of resident or in companies premises.
  • Their use is strictly restricted to the owner or members of the organization.


Promotes personal reading in a restricted environment

They propagate co-function of the organization individual.

They offer recreational facility to the members  i.e. provide an environment for leisure.

Information centers

Types  of information centres are,

Documentation centres.

  • It is a place where documents of information materials are selected acquired processed stored  and disseize to users who requires specific quantities information.
  • They employ selective dissemination of information and other current awareness in communication

Data center

  • Institutors that acquires and disseminate specifically factual and quantitate information  to be analysed for the purpose of management policy formulation decision making and research.
  • They normally store information on a particular subject for dissemination.

Cyber café

These  are designated  areas with computers that are internet enabled.

Users access information from the world wide web (www) via these computers.

It is an idea source of information since users have unlimited access to all subjects around the clock.

Publishing  house

These are institutors that is aimed at making profit by making information public by  producing and distributing it in large quantities and specified users.

They normally published information materials based  on selected and suitable manuscripts and thereafter distributing them to the market for users.

Examples of publishing house include            k.l.b

Longhorn  publishers

Oxford  publishers

Mass media  center

These are institutions that are involved in selection acquisition processing and distribution of information to diverse and scattered  audience  for the purpose of influencing their attitude and behavior  e.g  the standard ground ,nation media  group

They provide information either in electronic  or print.


Place where information materials are temporarily stored before being  sold to customers for a profit .

They stock materials on all subjects field be it  academic to leisure.

Bookshops are mostly found in urban centres.


This is the process by which information centers physically secures or acquires intended information materials.

Methods  of acquisitions

  1. Donations
  • These are materials which are given free of charge by friends or publishers
  • It is an ideal method since it is free of charge from any cost none the less care should be taken before accept these materials .i.e. they should meet the following standards
  • They should be relevant i.e. satisfy the information need of the users
  • The donor should never reclaim them later
  • They should be in good shape i.e. not torn and in proper printing
  • There should be no restriction on their use.
  • There should be no strings attached.
  • They should be absolutely free except transportation charges.
  • They should have low maintenance cost.
  1. Gifts

Gifts  are materials which are given out free of charge as an appreciation or recognition of a good work done .

They are more of donations  and they are given by publishing house or an organization in the name promoting their work

  1. Purchase

It entails the acquisition of materials by buying them from the supplier or publisher .in this case one has to ensure that relevant materials have been supplied before payment is affected.

  1. Exchange

This is a situation where materials of less importance are given to another center with different  materials of their less importance . Exchange is important as it creates variety with minimal cost saved for transport charges.

  1. Legal deposit

This is a policy by law that compels each publisher to give a copy of their work to a  deposit library e.g. (knells) in Kenya .in so doing the library needs not to bother to put a budget to purchase materials, since they would be given to them as per the law.

  1. Inter-library lending

This is a situation where a number of library comes together so that    the owner of the material should have the absolute right when it comes to their use.

A library may engage in ill because of the following reasons.

  • There is high cost of materials making it impossible to have enough money to purchase
  • There is an increase in users’ needs which are diverse.
  • There is high growth of literature which cannot be met around the clock i.e. new materials are being published day in day out.
  • Many libraries are faced with limited financial resources .
  1. Co –operative acquisition

This is whereby a number of library people their resources so that they can acquire their materials collectively this is done with the understanding that large volumes of patches attract a favorable discount from the publisher .none the less the materials purchased should be shared based on the percentage of contribution .

Acquisition  process

The following steps are undertaken when it comes to the acquisition of materials by an information center.

  1. Selection –the act of deciding  on the materials to be acquired .to do this ,selection tools such as publishers catalogues ,accession ,registers ,book reviews  in newspapers e.t.c can be used all these documents should be scanned carefully in order to make an informed or right decision.

Selection process

A book selection should be prepared for each item selected ensuring that items in the library are not re-selected .

Selection slips are grouped as per the subject and sent to concerned specialist for approval

The specialist should return the book slips either marked ,approved ,rejected or differed

  1. Recommendation from the specialist are treated as intent and these details should be entered in intent register where pages are allocated for each subject.
  2. Selection is a bit difficult requires to be done in a systematic manner based on a sound book selection policy .the role of a library staff engage in book selection is very important and the person should possess the following qualities .
  3. They should not be biased
  4. Should have adequate knowledge on users’ needs
  5. Should have adequate knowledge as far as subjects are concerned i.e. known various subjects fields.
  6. The person should be team player (consult others)
  7. The person should be relatively flexible.

Why should a library have a selection policy

  • To ensure that they acquire relevant materials thus not selecting irrelevant ones
  • To ensure that they acquire materials that are up to meet the current awareness service policy.
  • To ensure that there is enough and equal information resources across all subjects so that they are not biased one side and favour the side.
  • To make sure the materials purchased are scanned carefully in order to make informed or right decision
  • Some material may not be acquired directly thus one is referred with the relevant authority to search and use the same as a reference material.
  • Selection policy helps in accusation and preparation of catalogues
  1. Ordering
  • Once a book is selected for purchase the order has to be placed to acquire it.
  • Ordering is a crucial activity in the library which requiring a carefully consideration of library organization staff,furnitures t.c
  • An order librarian should have good knowledge of bibliographic language as well as management .
  • At the same time should have the knowledge  on book publishing and book selling

The ordering  procedure

  • Once approved ,each item is recorded on the order form
  • The order forms are arranged either on the base of the subject of the publisher
  • Compile the list of items to be orderd.
  • Transfer the form for title to be orderd to the order file and thereafter file them
  • Identify the supplier on the distributor
  • Send the order to the suppliers i.e. the list of items to be ordered
  • File a copy of the order from list of the materials and then await the receiving of the items.


This is the process of accepting or getting the possession of materials ordered .

Receiving procedure

  • Unpack martials by checking the order number (i.e.) counting
  • Retrieve the order file and verify suppliers invoice against items received for confirmation or verification
  • Then sign delivery note and the invoice (if everything is okay) and pass the same to the account for payment
  • Keep a copy of the delivery note and the invoice the order file
  • Record on the order form the date of delivery material and the invoice number .
  • Stamp the materials and access them as they await for further processing.

Processing  of  library  materials

This is the process undertaken  to prepare received materials in the library for use.

The following ways are used to prepare mater for use in the library

  1. Accessioning

This is the process of assigning accession number  to each and every material acquired in the library  the accession number is more of a serial number that differentiates one documents from the other .

The accession number is recorded in an accession register which is the official stop record of a library holding.

  1. Stamping

A stamp is a mark of ownership on each document in the library

Stamping should be done  using the official rubber stamp of the library and should be done on the lower half of the title page and other strategic places such as the back of the book last page.

Care should be taken during stamping in order to ensure  it is not done  on the printed matter.

The ink used in stamping should be permanent .

A library should have a secret page  to stamp its materials and the stamping should be closer to the inner side of the spine so that it is difficult to be seen by anyone (for security purposes)

  1. Spine marking

It entails writing of a call number on the spine of each document. This can be done by handwriting the number directly on the book or using an electric stylus .alternative a tag  can be pasted on the spine.

Spine marking is essential because documents are arranged as per this number on the shelves in ascending order.

  1. Jacketing

Once a book has been processed it has to be protected with an outer cover. This outer cover is what is called a book jacket.

It protects the books against dust and dirty hands

The jacket should be made of nylon –like materials so that the dust can hardly stick and if it was to be dusted it would be done with ease

  1. Easing the back

This is the act of making the spine of a document flexible .it is normal done by opening the document somewhere in the middle ,and then placing it on a flat surface or a table .thereafter running the thumb from the top to the bottom along the inner margin. The process is repeated after a number  of pages until the whole documents is covered.

Care should be undertaken to ensure the spine is not broken.

  1. Bar coding

This involves putting bar code on a textbook and mostly on the spine or the title page .

These bar codes are used when it comes to issuing and receiving back documents in the library

When the borrower wants to borrow the document /book the details of the book to be borrowed are swiped into the borrowers  at-like card ,thereafter issued with the book.

Alternatively the barcodes are used to arm or disarm the document during the process of circulation

  1. Labeling

Involves putting date label on each document in the libels the date labels are used to stamp the due date on the document ,when it is issued out.

It protects the document by ensuring the due date is to stamped directly on the document.

The date label should be applied on the title page along the top edge.

  1. Cutting open of pages

This involves trimming or opening pages which are still together.

This is normally  done by using a guillotine machine or a pair of scissors.

  1. Pocket fixing

This entails fixing a pocket near the right hand bottom corner of the inner front cover of the document .

The pocket is used to store  the book card of  the document that contains its bibliographic details .

In borrowing the document ,the slip is removed from the document and placed in the borrowers card for filing.

  1. Fixing ownership slip

This is normally pasted on the inner side of the front cover or on the title page top most corner

The slip measures between 7-5 by 6.5cm it gives the name of the library and insignia

  1. Classification and cataloging

It entails giving the document are a book a class number as well as its bibliographic details for easy retrieval

Classification and cataloguing

Classification this is the process of grouping or arranging items  in a logical order based on their degree of likeness.

Classification can either be;

  1. General broad classification-this is the process of classifying items under their general subject area e.g classifying biology under the general class of sciences.
  2. Specific /close classification –the act of classifying items in their specific subject area possible by use of specific division e.g classifying biology in its specific class of biology

Library  classification

  1. Library classification-the process of determining the subject of an item /document and then expressing it by the most appropriate notation from a classification scheme to facilitate its retrieval
  2. Notation-this is a symbol used to represent a term or a subject in classification scheme e.g k is a notation for law in library of congress classification scheme.
  3. Notations can either be;




Importance  of library classification

  • Helps in arranging primary documents in the library .
  • This is made possible by dividing knowledge into classes and the same class are used to arrange documents
  • It helps in replacing or re-shelving of documents in the library in their proper places after use .this is enabled by call number assigned to each documents during the process of classification
  • It helps in shelving newly acquired documents in the library having established sequence of classified stock
  • It allows for book display which makes it easy or possible for user to browse through the stock this is because classified stock is normally arranged in a systematic manner.
  • Facilitates collocation (bringing close together) this is because related subjects will have their materials shelved close to each other e.g languages on the same side whereas science on the other side.
  • It saves user time when it comes to information retrieval this is because of the systematic arrangement of materials
  • It facilitates weeding of library stock .this is because once the material have been classified ,it is possible to tell areas they are used and areas not used.

Categories of classification  schemes

Classification scheme-used in classifying materials

Documents used to classify materials in a library the commonly used categories of classification schemes are;

Enumerative classification scheme

Faceted  classification  scheme


Enumerative  classification  scheme

These are classification schemes that enumerates (list all subject present in the existing literature which is intended to be classified.)


Dowey  decimal classification  scheme  (d.d.c)

Library of congress  classification  scheme (l.c)

Advantages  of using  enumerative  classifications

  • The resulting notation especially for the main subject is usually short and less complicated e.g 500 is a notation for science in  (d.d.c) while the same is represented by  “q” in (l.c)
  • Ii is easier for the notation to display the hierarchical structure of the scheme .this is because the notation assigned are in a systematic order i.e. ascending order.
  • It gives readymade class numbers for the compound subject .in so doing ,it makes the work of the classifier simple by providing the notation t such compound subject.
  • Are widely used in most of information centres because they are familiar to library users as well as being readily available i.e. They are a household name when it comes to library classification.
  • By arranging knowledge from general to specific its application is simple because materials on the shelves at times are arranged in the sequence and therefore the user can browse through the shelf with ease.
  • It allows for both broad or close classification or close due to the hierarchical rotation i.e. The notation can run from broad to specific.
  • It can be easily used in computerized searching due to the hierarchical notations .this is normally done by adding or deleting a digit to the notation

Disadvantages  of enumerative  classification scheme

  • Since all the subjects in the universe of knowledge must be listed during classification ,there is the possibility of having very long schedules i.e. many and long classes.
  • It is complex to compile because it is not possible to identify and list all the subjects in the universe of knowledge i.e. we can only list what we know to exist.
  • It is difficult to revise as newly developed classes must be integrated with the existing one. In so doing ,the whole structure is disorganized ,disarranged .this can lead to re classification of materials.
  • Though it takes care of both simple and complex subjects t only accommodates the complex one to a high extend as the simple one are hardly seen . I.e. Many of the terms exist in two or more .
  • Since the notation of compound subject is already given the citation order is not flexible to the classifier .this is because the terms must be used as cited (or as listed) otherwise the meaning will change if the citation is changed  or altered.
  • There is the possibility of classifying one item in more than one place because some subjects can be found in more than one display i.e. cross classification is likely to happen.

Nab : the most important thing in the library is for the user to be able to access information

Faceted  classification  scheme

Faceted is based on analysis and combination of comfort existing in a document.

Advantages of faceted categories of classification scheme.

  • Easy to compile because compound subject are not given but are rather found in line of classification
  • It permits classification of very simple concepts and put a method of synthesize compound subjects
  • It provides a flexible sanitation area because chums can be combined in different ways
  • It is possible to achieve specific classification because compound subjects are found during classification.
  • Cross-classification is not likely to happen since class are provided for once knowledge has been identified.


  1. The notation desired can be long and complex hence unsuitable for self-arranging of documents as it can be fit on the span provision of number building or combination
  2. It does not allow for both close and broad classification this is because it is only used for specific classification it is hardly used since it is unfamiliar to many user hence used in special libraries.

Types  of  classification  schemes

They exist in two type namely;

  1. General
  2. Special


This  are classification schemes which are meant to classify all materials in their area of knowledge i.e. all subject the commonly used schemes of general classification are;

  1. Dewey decimal classification schemes  (d.d.c)
  2. Library of congress classification scheme  (e.t.c)
  3. Universal decimal classification  scheme  (u.d.c)

Dewey  decimal  classification  scheme

  • It was formulated by Melvin Dewey in new york
  • The scheme employs the use of a decimal to expand its natation
  • It comes from general to specific
  • It uses a notation of Arabic numerical and it divides its knowledge into classes.
  • And the classes are 10
  • This classes are meant for specific subject whereas class 00 is meant for materials which cannot fit in specific  classes,.


100-philosophy  and psychology


300-social  science

400- language

500-pue science/natural science and mathematics

600-technology (applied science)

700-the art of reaction

800- literature

900-geography ,history  and biography.

Advantages  of  d.d.c

  • It is universally acceptable since it uses pure notation of Arabic numerical which is simple and easy to remember/it is universally acceptable.
  • Provides for relative location i.e. applied in arranging documents which are closely related in one
  • It is ideal for both close and broad classification .
  • T was an hospitable notation i.e. it has an assign of black class numbers which gives room for new knowledge
  • It is constantly revised hence it is up to date as far as new knowledge is concerned
  • It has an endless notational expansion due to the decimal principle.
  • It has an comprehensive index  and a manual or  instruction which assists the classifies in their work
  • It has been translated to order 30 languages in so doing it can overcome language barriers.

Disadvantages  of  d.c.c

  • It is difficult to accommodate new knowledge since that all field of knowledge has been divided into ten classes.
  • This means any new knowledge has to be for all into the existing classes since a new class not be created for it.
  • The notational base a ten man classes results in long class number in such specifically .this is not suitable for shelf arrangement of document since number cannot fit on the spine of many books.
  • The scheme is biased towards western civilization for instance in class (200) religion Christianity has been given 80% coverage living only 20% to other .
  • It has unbalanced structure –some classes are crowded 300,500 where are scattered or special e.g class 100
  • The placement of some subject in certain disciplines remains instance placing library science in class 000 for generalize yet it is more specific subject.
  • The scheme is very expensive to fix an ordinary library for instance the 21st goes for over 50 thousand Kenyan shilling

Library  of  congress

Library of congress was established in 1800 and was housed in capital in which the library was burned down together with its stock of 3000 collection-it was when the retired president Thomas Jefferson offered his personal library stock of 3400 volumes for sell to the congress when the new library was completed it was found out that Jeffersonian system of existing classification scheme were in appropriate of library of congress use.

This  lead  to the need of developing and in-house classification scheme  to carter for library of congress need.

Lack is more of classification scheme a well as a general .it is special because of the  classes

The classes  have been published independently lock was formulated based on literally warrant of congress library-it was structured based on materials which were already in the library of congress and other which are to be added .

Ice use a mixed notation of letter or alphabets and Arabic numerals with letter for main  subject and 2 letters for main division of subject.

E.g       q-         m         an subject

Qd       main division  of a subject

Qd-142 subdivision  of a subject .

Are represented by Arabic  numerals

For example




Qe-1-10 reproduction

The whole of knowledge has been subdivided by l.c  into 21 classes as follows.

A-general  works

B- bg  philosophy

C-auxiliary science  of history

D-history in general and the whole  world.

E-history of America

F-geography and au tropology

G-social  science



J-political science




N-fine  art


P-language  and literature



S- agriculture


U-military  science

V-naral science

Z-bibliography  and library science


Universal Decimal classification  (UDC)

  • It was initiated by international  institute  of bibliography 11b which let changed to international federal for documentation  (ifd)  udc  was adopted from ddc with the sole purpose of combining a classified index to a universal bibliography  udc  was created by Paul and first edition of udc was in  french  in 1905.

The second  edition was in English  in 1927-1933 and it was called universal because;

  • It covers the universe knowledge
  • It was intended to be universally accepted by being translated to major languages.
  • It was meant to achieve the order of the information bibliography that is becoming bibliography of bibliographer.
  • It is based on the principal of general to specific class number and it uses pure notation of Arabic numbers with the field of knowledge into main classes.
  • It uses one digit unlike ddc which uses three each notation is subdivided to the required degree of specify by using a decimal.

These  classes  are;


1-psychology and philosophy


3-social  science


5-pure  science



8-language  and literature

9-geogrphy  and history

Advantages  of  udc 

  1. It has flexible citation order and a detailed synthesis of nation which makes it possible to achieve specific classification and retrieval
  2. It has a notation which is invalid accepted that is the Arabic numeral.
  3. It has done away with the pro-America biased witness in lc and it has been published in many language .
  4. Its revision users centered that it is revised based on user proposals .this is done by giving user provision noted to propose changes.
  5. The note are an accumulated and voted and thereafter the popular changes are included in the new edition of udp.
  6. It can be used for machine searching since the note is expensive i.e. it allows for number building.

Disadvantages  of  udp

  • Its complex to use as it task is adequate instruction are use.
  • Its maintenance and revision is poor /costly because of my  committees of financial and human resources which is involved to facilitate revision programs
  • It is biased towards technology since 50% of it covers technology .
  • It contains many mistakes like its parent source that is unbalanced structure that is unbalanced structure dividing knowledge into 10 classes
  • Notating for specific subject end up being long which is hence unsuitable for shelf arrangement of document .
  • It’s ideal for resource sharing (cataloging in publication )

Advantages of l.c scheme

  1. It is a practical scheme which cannot fail ,this is because it was prepared in order to be used to classify materials from the library of congress.
  2. It is very suitable for the arrangement of documents as it because its main aim was to be used in arranging of documents in l.c
  3. It has a short hospitable notation which is easy to remember and has even to take of new knowledge .
  4. It is upto date as it continuously revised this is because it is supported by great library with adequate human and financial resource .
  5. It is good for standatization and resource sharing as it is used in cip (catalogue publication)
  6. It is cheaper to acquire since its class is published independently this means the user will only acquire a class of his or her own interest.


  1. It is difficult to use because of the many volumes and lacks a general index like ddc.
  2. Its notation is expensive therefore it is not good for the machine searching this means one cannot broaden or narrow the search as is the case of ddc
  3. It is biased to Americans in coverage to terminology this is because it is used to serve their interest e.g. History of America which has been given two classes ,whereas the word history has been given one class which is history in general
  4. It is expensive to keep up to date since it involves working on collecting schedule to supplement new announcement of changes accumulation of addition since its multi volume ,
  5. Since it does not have on abridge edition or summary it might be too expensive .
  6. It has a mixed rotation which reduces mnemonic ability because it is difficult to remember a combination of letters and numbers.

Special classification scheme .

It’s a scheme which covers one major subject and are of its scheme which is compiled according to the information needs of a given group of users or libraries .they are referred to as in house classification schemes .

A scheme is ordered special because of ;

  1. It covers only 1 subject area of discipline
  2. It covers an association of related topics or subjects e.g science humanities
  3. It covers a certain category of users e.g cheltrn harm classification for school libraries .
  4. It is restricted to certain form of publication e.g standards of patters (copy right )right to ownership to a given intellectual.

Advantages of special classification scheme

  1. It provides for detailed specification for complex subject hence closed classification is achieved. This is because it has limited coverage .
  2. It is derived notation likely to be short due to the limited coverage
  3. It’s possible to build a flexible citation since it is in housed based .
  4. Specialist view point of a given subject or user since catered for ,this is because it is special in coverage .
  5. It is cheap in terms of acquisition since the classifier will only acquire his area of interest

Disadvantages  of special classification scheme

  1. Its complex to construct hence it requires a profession this makes its application costly
  2. It adopted it denies a library the benefits of centralized cataloguing hence centralized cataloguing is done by the use  of general scheme
  3. Its revision can only be done by professional class this means in his absence the scheme shall remain dated.
  4. It is adopted professional classifier must be hired implement it. This means added cost to the library
  5. User must learn to use it as they are used to the general scheme. This might create problems to them.


Cataloguing; this is the process of creating and maintain bibliographic and authority record in the library catalogues


This is the process of describing documents held in a library .collection and providing entry point them for easy organization and retrieval

A catalogue; this is a document with its bibliography details

There are 2 different forms of catalogues

  1. Manual catalogue e.g card catalogues ,books catalogue
  2. Computerized catalogue (recoded on a computer and readable) and it is on (rom)

Importance  of cataloguing

  1. It contributes to effective management and use of library collection thus enabling each document to be described in total
  2. It facilitates the identification of items in a library collection this is because the bibliographic details on each item are enumerated or listed in total and uniquely.
  3. It makes it easy to locate in the library collection
  4. It makes it easy to locate documents held in a library by proving entry point for them (access points e.g author  ,title  or subjects)
  5. Helps to collect (bring together) related documents in the library i.e. during cataloguing the catalogues is able to describe similar documents in the same manner either by author ,subject or title.
  6. It makes it possible to come out with added entire which forms the alternatively entry points to a document
  7. It acts as a backup to the occasion register where documents are given occasion register get lost the catalogues can be used to come up with another accession register.
  8. It makes it possible for users to survey or know what is available in the library as per author or subject.

Forms  of library  catalogue

  • A library catalogue is a list of items contained in a library collection arranged according to a systematic order for easy organization management and retrieval.
  • The term form refer to the physical forms of the mark on which the catalogue entire are made.

Physical  forms of library  catalogues

  • Card catalogue
  • Printed book  catalogues
  • Sheaf catalogue
  • Microform catalogue
  • Machine readable catalogue  (maro)
  • Card catalogue

It is widely used from which comprises of making entries on a card measuring 7.5 cm by 12.5

Easy to update by the use of computer processing

Easy to use it is in a printed book format.


  • Highly expensive to maintain and especially when a new edition has to be printed in updating it.
  • Individual volumes can get lost or misplaced since they are portable.
  • Its cumbersome to consult many volume supplements.
  • It is not durable compared to card catalogues sin it’s made of ordinary paper.
  • Multi access not possible especially when there is only one copy.
  • Its faced with the problem of out of date or printing

Sheaf  catalogue

It’s a form in which bibliographic details of items are presented on paper slips each measuring 19 by 10cm.

This slip are held together by loose leaf binder and each leaf holds entire of a single documents

A complete volume of a binary may hold between 500-560 slips.

These binders are filled in pigeon holds forming a cabinet catalogue


  • It is flexible as it allows the insertion the insertion on withdrawal of entire as required.
  • The binders are portable as they are just like a book hence can be consulted at user convenience
  • Its relatively cheap to be produced since the paper slips used are cheaper and they are just ordinary papers
  • Its compact i.e. one binder holds a lost
  • Can be easily produced into multi copies by photocopying .
  • Multi –access is possible using different loose leaf binders ..

Disadvantages .

  • It is not durable since it’s made of ordinary papers slips .
  • High maintenance cost as the leaf are not durable.
  • Can get lost or misplaced easily as the binders are portable .
  • Hard to consult especially several loose binder of the same alphabetical limit
  • Once again loose binder is fall one must be used irrespectively of the alphabetical limit which filled the previous one.

Microform  catalogue

  • Consist of catalogues entries in micro images in order to access the information one requires a micro-fiche reader .
  • The microform has at the top a read be label indicator what covered in the catalogue and a sheet of microfilm can hold  entries equivalent to these held by printed book catalogues of 96 pages.


  • Its highly durable if carefully handled.
  • Card holds details of a single document that the cards are filled in catalogues trays which are housed in a catalogue cabinet.
  • A standard tray can hold approximately 1000 card a card are held securely in their trays by a metal rod which goes through the hole at the bottom of each rod.


  1. Highly flexible as it allows the insertion and withdrawal of entire as required
  2. Individual card and tray are portable
  3. Multi accessories possible when user are utilizing different access points unlike in a book catalogue.
  4. They are relatively secular as compared to printed book catalogue
  5. Easy to produce them into multi copies by either duplication or photocopy
  6. Can be easily duded by the use of color codes or differentiate between different kinds of information .
  7. Easy to use as it’s the form which is familiar or concerned to this form.
  8. Its durable as compared to the printed book from ,since it’s made of manila paper
  9. Its economical to produce and maintain i.e. materials are easily available and does not require frequent maintenance.


  1. The catalogue cabinet occupies a lot of floor space this is in terms of the physical structure and consultation space.
  2. Though easy to update the form creates a lot of work when it comes to interfiling new or amended entries.
  3. It is not possible to stand several entries at the same time since each card hold entries of one document.
  4. Multi access is not possible when utilizing one access point. This leads to monopolizing of catalogues.
  5. Its wasteful especially for items with very brief bibliography details .This is because the catalogue must be standard irrespective of the details to be written.
  6. Its cumbersome to produce especially by typing or unwritten method.
  7. Can only be consulted in a fixed location

Printed book catalogue

It’s a form in which bibliographic details a document are present in a book bound form

These details are produced via the computer and single page can hold several entries .They are normally updated at regular intervals


  1. Users can scan several entries at the same time because a page contains around 6 entries
  2. Individual volumes are portable. This makes it possible to be consoled at the users at the convenience
  3. It occupies no floor space
  4. Its relatively durable if properly handled
  5. Multi copies are easily produced via the computers
  6. Can be easily guided by use of Colour code during its preparation before printing
  7. The side used to store information are portable i.e. the use cannot be restricted to a given environment
  8. Its compact i.e. holds a lot
  9. Multi copies can easily produce through use of computer processing
  10. Cheap to produce and maintain at the long run
  11. Easy to update through the use of computer procession


  • Can only be updated by use of computer processing i.e. any changes can only be done by the use of a computer
  • The information in need can only be accused by a machine aided readers
  • Its power dependent since the equipment used requires power
  • Can get easily lost or misplaced due to its small size
  • Too delicate (slides) hence maximum care their used required
  • Its restricted to people with technology knowledge


In this format catalogue information is stored in a computer and storage media is external e.g. flash disk

The information requires a computer to access the content


  1. It has a high storage capacity
  2. The removable storage media (flash disk) are portable hence can be used at use convenience
  3. Its durable if taken care of
  4. It’s easy to produce multi copies via computer
  5. It’s easy to update using the computer
  6. It’s an immediate to access to information by the touch of a button
  7. Multi access is possible via the OPAC (online public access catalogue


  1. A computer must be used to access the information hence absence the form is of no use
  2. Its power dependent since machines used require s power
  3. Its use is limited to people with technological know how
  4. The initial cost is installing computer systems are extremely high
  5. The format is prone to security risk especially the computer virus
  6. Its efficiency and speed is subjected or depended to the type of computer used


Types refer to how bibliographic of items are presented on a catalogue. The following are some types of library catalogues:

  1. Authors catalogue
  • It is a catalogue consisting of authors surname alphabetically. In this type the accession entry point is the name of the author
  1. Subject catalogue
  • It consists of subject entries arranged alphabetically in this type the accession entry point is the subject of a document. These type of catalogue serves the interest of users and is able to indicate various subject covered based on the document
  • It consists of entries for books under the tittle arranged alphabetically. It makes it possible to tell the number document held in a given library as per title
  1. Dictionary catalogue
  • It’s a catalogue in which all entries, author, subjected, title etc. ad their related arranged together in one general catalogue just like in a dictionary


  1. Easy to use since the entries are arranged in a similar just like a dictionary
  2. It’s faster when it comes to location of items or concept because they are arranged in single alphabets system
  3. Since it does not rely on classification schemes it can be outdated. This is because letters of alphabets
  4. Provides direct approach to catalogue due to the following: that it has only one sequence that is A-Z


  1. There is likely hood of separating relatively related subjects due to their alphabetical differences
  2. It brings a lot of work when filling all these items in sequence
  3. The see and see also confusing to many users since they do not understand their meaning
  4. Divided catalogue

This is a catalogue which is separated into two sequence i.e. authors, title sequence and subjected sequence-this means that there are two sets of works when filling all these items in a sequence


  1. Revision of entries is easier to understand due to the two sequences. This means when one sequence being revised the other sequence can be used
  2. It reduces congestion of users at the catalogue area because they are distributed into two sequences Ice title or subject
  3. It facilitates ease of consultations due to the use of two filing sequence i.e. users what is best known


  1. Its costly since more stationery and equipment are used
  2. This is a duplication of entries especially the cross refers in the two sequence- this means on sequence makes reference the other sequences

Classified catalogue

  • It’s a catalogue in which subject entries are arranged according to classification symbols i.e. according to class number. This implies that the entries are arranged based on the symbol allocated to them
  • Entries are arranged in an ascending order e.g. 100, 200


  1. Related subjects are filled together

Standard numbers

  • Two standard numbers – international standard book number (ISBN) and international standard serial. These standard numbers are crucial as they identify a single document since they are newly shelved

Call number

  • Of the authors mark and class number. It’s a crucial element because it links the library from the actual position of the document itself

Tracing or added entries

  • Author access points through which the document can be searched or traced

Amalga moss

Effects of high population/ by Jacob otieno

Ef 3rd edition Cape Town; bidii 2010

IV, 300p, in 20m by 30cm (natural resources series no. 16)

Has bibliography

ISBN 320 – 112 – 334

I natural reserves I title

II series III Kamau, Lydia

Cataloguing codes

  • These are a set of rules meant to guide catalogues in preparing cataloguing entries in order to have uniformity in cataloguing work
  • Uniformity entails that different works by the same author should always be entered the same form of heeding by different libraries using the same code

Development of catalogues codes

  • The earliest cataloguing code was British museum code which was published in 1841 and it had 91 rules
  • It was designed to cater for a single library which was the British museum which later changed to British library

Importance of cataloguing codes

  • It influenced directly or indirectly emergency of English language code
  • The code emphasizes that when describing an item bibliography detail should be from the information found in the document itself
  • The code allows the use of pseudonym (nickname) as mean entry heading

Examples of cataloguing codes

AACRI – American cataloguing rule 1

AACRII – Anglo American cataloguing rule 11

LC – library of congress cataloguing rule

AlA – American library association rule

LA – library association rule


Enable information Centre to develop

  1. Uniform approach in cataloguing information materials. This is because the materials will be catalogued in a standard manner
  2. Encourage the user of the same rule to facilitate preparation of union catalogue. It makes it easy to produce catalogue entries correcting or jointly

N/B: union catalogue is a catalogue that reflects the holdings of more than one library

  1. Promote inter library lending and joined cataloguing because the catalogue are similar
  2. Provides rules to be adopted by any library hence it staff need not to think on how to prepare catalogue enterie i.e.

Catalogue entries are prepared as the guide like gives the code.


A computer is used in cataloguing to produce entries in electronic form and at the same time print or file the entries that are required

  • In using computer to produce catalogue entries details of a document are input directly into the computer which store the retain them in soft copy
  • A computer is idea in creating catalogue entries since created are interfiled with the main sequence immediately they are into the computer
  • For a computer to be used in cataloguing it must be installed with cataloguing software database


  • It’s useful in compiling complete catalogue of a single library. It’s used to formulate the produce of catalogue entries
  • It makes it possible to carry out frequent revision. A computer is used to effect any changes in the catalogue and even add more entries
  • It does not suffer from outdated language barrier terminologies coz it uses symbols or notations i.e. class number
  • It permits logical arrangements of subject entry because entries are arranged in ascending order
  • It can be used by library serving multilingual person since notation is the same irrespective of the language


  1. Many libraries users are not familiar with the system or notations which are used to arrange the entries
  2. It inherits the weakness of classification scheme in use since on scheme is 100% correct

Elements of a catalogue

It entails description of a catalogue. They are elements of parts of a catalogue

They include:

  1. Heading

Is the entry point to a catalogue and it can either be the author surname, title or subjects

  1. Statement of responsibility

It is the statement about authorship i.e. the creators of a work. It’s essential coz it gives credit or recognition to the author of the book

  1. Title

Is the theme focus in the work? The title is important because it distinguished one document from others

  1. Edition statement

It gives the current nature of the in case of multiple editions. The users are able to pick theedotion

  1. Publication details/imprints

This comprises of the place of publication, years of publication and the publishers of the publication. It is essential because it identifies the publisher’s location in in acquisition needs

Name of publishers is essential to know the quality for known publishers

Years of publication reflects on currency of the document

  1. Physical description area

It’s essential because it enables the users to have the mutual picture of a book he or she needs. It comprise measurements of the book, number of pages, illustrate if used etc.

  1. Series
  • It comprises the name of the series to which the document belongs and its number in the sciences for instance library sciences series no. 6. The series area is normally endosedin parenthesis that cured brackets
  • It enables entries to store online, making it possible for direct access to catalogue as well as resource sharing
  • Used to store information (entries) making it possible to access them whenever they are required
  • Used to produce a print out in a book bound format
  • It makes it possible to file entries in automatic way i.e. procedure entries in a systematic way mimed book they are produced
  • It saves on library space when it comes to filling (storing) in the computer system which does not occupy


Filling – is the process of arranging in systematic order bibliographic details in a catalogue

Once catalogue entries are produced they may be filled in a systematic manner in order to fulfill the intended function

Catalogue entries can be filled either alphabetically or through classified arrangement

Classified arrangement is the easiest one to adopt since alphabetical method by letter or word by word in filling because once adopted the sequence must be followed strictly


  • To collect (bring together) related entries : this is because entries of related documents will always be filled next to each other
  • To facilitate easy reference and retrieval of item in the library, this is because catalogue entries are the
  • Makes it easy to update or revise catalogue entries, it is possible to add or remove entries
  • Facilitates orderly arrangement of catalogue entries in a systematic order
  • Protects the catalogue entries against loose or damage because filled entries are normally placed in catalogue tray and they are fastened by a metal rod to protect them


  • Circulation is the charging and discharging of materials in the library i.e. the issuing and receiving back of reading materials. The task is normally undertaken by the circulation desk. In this regard, circulation desk is regarded as the centre of activities in the library
  • Many users must deal with the staff at the circulation desk which means they are the phase of the library i.e. they affect the public image of the library
  • It is therefore important for the circulation desk to be managed by human personnel

Functions of a circulation desk in the library

  1. Keeping vigilance: – the staff at the circulation desk must keep an eye on the entrance and the exit of the library. They should be vigilant so that those coming in do not bring prohibited items or materials; whereas those going out don’t walk out with unauthorized materials -the staff at this point should be humane, i.e. courteous, strict, friendly but not offensive
  1. Members registration:
  • It entails registering new members by taking them through the formal process as well as reviewing expired membership. Equally the same, should a member want to withdraw from the library, the same is done at circulation desk
  1. Charging and discharging:- it involves giving out and receiving back books from borrowers
  2. Charging overdue books: – if a borrower fails to return a book borrowed in the library on the due date, a fine is levied on daily basis. When the book is finally returned in the library the borrower is charged or fined for failing to return the book in time
  3. Issuing of reminders: – despite the fact that overdue books are normally fined it is important to issue reminders to those having overdue book to kindly return them to the library. In so doing, the book becomes beneficial to all users
  4. Reservation

At times a user may require a book only to learn it has been issued to someone else. In such case, he can request the librarian to reserve the book for himself or herself when it is returned to the library. In so doing the book cannot be re-issued to someone else, when returned to the library. However reservation should have a time frame.

  1. Changing lost or damaged items:

Many at ties users may damage or lose documents or items in their possession. In such case, they should replace it or meet cost of repair all these are done at the circulation desk

  1. Maintenance of records

Circulation section maintains all records in the libraries such as membership’s books for loans, overdue books, and charges for lose and damaged items, gate register, and ticket lost among others

  1. Inter-library lending

It entails getting books from other libraries on behalf of the users

  1. Property counter:

This is a luggage section, where users deposit, items not authorized for use in the library e.g. hand bags, jackets, foodstuffs etc. this section is normally manned by circulation staff, however users must be warned against leaving valuables


  • Many times, users prefer reading materials outside library environment. This brings the question of finding the most suitable methods to adopt in circulating the materials. The charging system to be adopted must be one that takes the least possible time to discharge a document. It nus also be economical in terms of staff money and usual materials


In your opinion what are the qualities of a good charging

The following methods are used in circulating or changing materials in a library or an information Centre

  • Ledger system

It is normally a register which is maintained I the library and each borrower is allocated a page or pages, an index for the names of borrowers is given at the beginning of the register

-the ledger is structured using the following details per borrower i.e.

Their name(s)

  • Dummy system
  • This is a representation of a real object, i.e.
  • It is an object that represents the actual
  • This system uses a dummy as a substitute for a book on the shelf when it is used to a user
  • The name of the user, call number and the date issues are written on the cover of the dummy as a means of identifying the borrowers
  • The system is deal for a closed access where users are served through the counter
  • Indicator system
  • In this system a large wooden frame having many pigeon holes is made use of
  • Blocks made of wood are used to represent documents in the pigeon holes
  • One end is painted blue whereas the other end is painted red
  • Red indicates the book has been issued out
  • Blue indicates the book is in
  • In this system charging is done using a ledger
  • It is normally ideal foe closed access and very limited stock
  • Browne system
  • In this system, users are issued with readers tickets which are made in form of a pocket. This system is commonly used in many information centers because it is a bit efficient
  • Each reader is issued with a given number of cards and determines the number of books one can borrow at a given time
  • Details of borrowers are written in each and every card
  • When borrowing the materials, the user presents their card and together with the material to be borrowed
  • The book card is removed from the document and inserted the borrowers card,, then the book is issued out
  • Currently the browne system is being replaced by a smart one
  • Routing system
  • In this system a list of users is compiled in the course using the document i.e.
  • Users are registered based on the sequence they are using the document
  • The list of those using the document, is maintained by the librarian so that it is possible to track to use the document to the last or current users


  • Circulating system means how users are served in a library i.ethe means which are used to charge and discharge materials in a library
  • Users in any information can be served through two main system
  • Manual and mechanized one (automated)


  • This is a system in which users present the documents they want to borrow together with their borrowers cards at circulation desk
  • The staff at the circulation desk records the necessary details for the users as well as the document to be borrowed manually when the staff at the circulation desk is satisfied that both the borrowers and the document details are correct, the user is issued with the document after a due date stamp has been put on the dates slip

Advantages of the manual system

  • Easy to start because it only needs the users and the document to be borrowed and possibly a ledger where one writes the details
  • It is cheap to start since much of the materials to be used are cheap and readily available
  • It is available all the time since it only requires the users and the books to be issued i.e. it does not require any external factors to be executed
  • It is ideal for upcoming libraries with limited human and financial resources


  • Very slow and cumbersome since details have to be verified manually
  • It is not accurate since the staff at the circulation desk may miss to record some details due to fatigue
  • It creates a lot of work in filing borrowers cards recording borrowers details
  • It is not reliable since one can easily mess with filed book cards

Mechanized or automated

  • In using this system, members are issued with an ATM like borrowers card
  • In this arrangement all the materials in the library are automated I.e., their catalogue is electronic. During the borrowing, the users presents their card and the document to be borrowed at the circulation desk
  • The details of the document to be borrowed, are swiped into the borrowers card via the computer and thereafter book is issued
  • When the user is through with the document, he takes it to the library together with their card and the details of the document are de-activated from their card, via the card

Advantages of automated

  1. Highly ideal since it is paperless i.e., there is no writing
  2. High speed in issuing and receiving back materials since it is computer oriented
  3. It is very accurate in fact almost 100% accurate
  4. It saves the librarian the burden of filling borrower’s card. This is because the cards are never left in the library
  5. It is relatively secured especially when charging and discharging since it can be protected by a password

Disadvantages of automated

  1. It is highly expensive for it requires computer and programmers to generate or develop the software to be used
  2. It has high maintenance cost since the computers keep on breaking down and at the same time it requires a technician in 24 hrs.
  3. They are not highly reliable due to the fact that they depend on power to operate and learn
  4. It is a highly risky business since the generated program can easily crash hence loosing all details
  5. It can easily be sabotaged by the touch of a button
  6. It is health hazard since computers emits dangerous rays


  • This means the arranging of library materials in a systematic order based on their class number.
  • Shelving makes it easier for library users to retrieve documents
  • Materials in a library are normally shelved in different sequence, they include;
  1. Main sequence: – these comprise materials which are of current interest to users e.g. text books periodicals etc.

This sequence is normally opened to each and every user I.e. it self-service section (it is also called open access)

2. Close sequence:- this is an area where rare, costly or small sized materials are normally placed or shelved in this section users are served through the counter

  • Thesis and abnormal sequence
  • This is a sequence where materials Witten by individuals perusing higher educational credential are placed

Also in the same area, oversized materials are shelved

  • In addition to the above, there may be a sequence for no book materials. It is mostly called audio-visual section
  • There may be also temporary sequence for;

1. Correction sequence:- this is the section where materials or books taken out for correction are kept

2. Topical sequence:- these are section where books of topical interest dealing with local festivities or events ate shelved

They are mostly cereals which are of current interest

3. Binding sequence:- this is a section where materials binding are normally placed

4. Display sequence:-this is a section where newly published or acquired materials are placed before being ordered for or integrated with the existing collection

It is normally at strategic point in the library for users to see possibly close to the entry

5. Just- returned- sequence:- this is a section where materials which have been brought back in the library by users are placed before being returned into their respective shelve

Importance of shelving documents in a library

  • It saves users time when it comes to locating

Thesis  and abnormal  sequence

  • This is a sequence where materials written by individual perusing higher education credential are placed also in the same area, oversized material are shelved.
  • In addition to the above there may be a sequence for no book materials. It is mostly called audio-visual section.
  • There may be also temporary sequence for;
  1. Correction sequence-this is a section where materials of books taken out for correction are kept
  2. Topical sequence –this is a section where books of topics interest dealing with local festival or events are shelved.
  3. Binding sequence –this is section where materials are binding are normally placed.
  4. Display sequence-this is a section where newly published or acquired materials are placed before be ordered for integrated with the existing collection.

It is normally at strategic point in the library for user to see possibly close to the entry

Just –returned –sequence –this is a section where materials which have been brought back in the library by user placed before being returned into their respective shelves.

Importance  of  shelving documents in a library

  • It saves user time when it comes to locating documents due to the systematic arrangement.
  • It makes it easy for stocktaking-it is easier to physically count  materials which are on the shelves.
  • It enables stock evaluation to be undertaken this is because to tell areas where materials are used and vice-versa
  • It makes it easy to find misplaced documents therefore placing them back in their shelves or location.
  • It makes it possible to find materials which requires binding or mending
  • It creates order in the library. I.e. there is sequential arrangement as per subjects.
  • There is a maximum utilization of library collection .this because it is possible to browse through the collection .
  • It reduces maintenance cost of library materials since they hardly get torn.

Rules  and regulations

  1. Rule-this is a compulsory principle governing action
  2. Regulations-are prescribed to lay down or improve authority
  3. Nonetheless the two are more of the same.
  4. It is crucial for any library to have a set of rules and regulations to guide who would be members.
  5. Rules and regulations are necessary in enabling members to know their privileges e.  the  do(s) and don’ts.

Example: it is important for a member to know the consequences of their actions in a library environment.

  1. Each library may have its own rule and regulation although many at times this rules are similar across all libraries.
  2. Rules and regulations helps library users as well as the staff as they form the basis tool in library management

Example  of rules  and regulations  in a library

  • No sweaters or jackets
  • Maintain silence
  • No eating or food not allowed
  • No group discussion
  • No smoking.

Purpose/ importance  of rules and regulations in a library

  1. Enables user to get maximum benefit out of library resources e.g books ,equipment’s and furniture’s.

E.g  a rule prohibiting seats reservation ensures all the sections are in use all the time

  1. It prevents misuse of library resources as they have to be used as per the rule.
  2. To avoid too strict or troublesome regulations aimed at dealing with dishonest user in the library .this is based to assumption that all users are honest.
  3. Makes them few in numbers as possible using simple and legal language i.e. this rule should be few and straight forward.
  4. They allow the librarian to make independent decision pertaining to special cases and privileges e.g the issuing of reference materials,
  5. Rules and regulations are a pillar to effective management of library in total i.e. no library can exist with rules and regulations

Note : users  should view rules and regulation as a hindrance but an avenue to effective use of library


An employee /librarian should be assigned a given number of personnel r manage as per their experience or qualification .In so doing it becomes easy to manage  . Operation in order to realize .the set objectives if one is assigned so many individuals to supervise .

In efficiency hence it is important to create unit of command to enhance the efficiency

To enhance  equity

Administration ensure there is fairness when dealing with employees for instance salary scales should be based on education experience and level of responsibility –in social employees /workers will be motivated and will feel applicable.


STATISTICS-Refer to quantitative information accumulative over a given period of time

E.g .Number of books added to the library per number of new members  or number of users.


  1. Enables the management to know how the library is doing

E.g Statistics for a given year will indicate the position of the library in terms of growth

  1. They are used to compare reports; The happening of the library are captured by an annual report is generated using accumulated statistics
  2. They help in accessing the efficiency of different section

E.g statistic indicating and increase in the number of users shows that all section in the library are efficient curtains extend

  1. Statistic forms the basis of library planning and its services.
  2. They are used to prepare a case for increase in fund and staff are needed to cater for the user
  3. They are used to present to user and management of the achievement of library i.e. statistic are the basis of concrete achievement as they are the official record of library.



It indicates number of documents acquired either by purchase or donation


Indicates number of documents classified in a given period of time


Indicating number of documents catalogued and card prepared within a number of period of times

It is within areas of gathering statistics in a library


Indicates number of users using the library ate given time.


Reflects number of books and other documents in circular or given in a given period of time

Reference  services

Are statistics indicating the input and output of reprogram services i.e. revenue obtained from photocopying services.


Emerging trends are new happenings in library and  information centres include ;

  1. There is an increase in users’ needs or demands day in da out as far as information needs are concerned.
  2. There is a high growth of literature i.e. new materials are published on daily basis making it a challenge for a library to acquire them.
  3. Use of computers in cataloguing and classification i.e. E-cataloging and E-Classification
  4. The use of internet in provision of information i.e. many information center are now connected to online services hence their access can access information they need online.
  5. There is an increase need of professional training of librarian  e.  Nowadays all personnel working in an information centres are  professional.
  6. There is an increase in automation of information center i.e. many of the services being offered are computerized be it circulation ,security check e.t.c
  7. There is extension services emergence aimed at bringing information closer to user .This is done either by use exhibition advertisement
  8. Emergence of online acquision i.e. acquiring documents online.
  9. HIV /AIDS emergence whereby various personnel working in information center are either affected or infected by the scratch and this affected their performance


  1. Lack of adequate funds to purchase all materials needed by users .
  2. Poor delivery of services for personnel who are affected or infected  by  HIV/AID –this  is because they have a divided personality in their of work.
  3. Untrained librarians require to be professionally trained in our libraries top safeguard their jobs or keep pace with the new trend this might overstretch their resources or personalities hence they become inefficient
  4. Many library users are not computer literate and this makes them shy when comes to using computer to satisfy their informational needs.
  5. It has become abet difficult for acquisition library to acquire relevant documents or as far as information need of user are concerned since they are valid.
  6. Many information centres are not in position to accommodate a great number of their users .This is due to the limited space in the library as well as the physical facilities.
  7. In case of network failure it becomes difficult for inform Centre to operate especially for the online services.
  8. There is an increase of library losing their database due to computer virus or sabotage .This has put pressure or resource used to maintain this system.


  1. Many information centres are soliciting for don or funding’s to stock their information centres.
  2. Individuals serving in libraries and are affected infected .By Hive and Aids are encourage or assigned to a counselor and their possible working hours and made flexible.
  3. There is an increase on a number of services provided providing internet services
  4. Many institution of higher learning are offering computer studies (ICT) as a compulsory subject
  5. Currently many companies are developing antivirus software’s to protect database.


  1. For computer virus all data base in the library should have a backup.
  2. For untrained librarians ,they should be encouraged to take professional training in librarianship this should be done by providing them with paid study leaves or sponsorship.
  3. For those who are infected/affected with HIV should be given a flexible working hours and a loving hand and care extended to them. If possible a counselor can be send to them
  4. For users/persons who are not computer literate ,the library should start programs to empower them to the use of computers alternatively there should be reference librarian to assist those who are stranded.
  5. In order to cater for growing number of users the library should have a strategic plan on how to expand its services as well as their physical facilities
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