Disaster management

TOPIC 5: DISASTER MANAGEMENT

Sub-Topics
1) Meaning of Terms
2) Importance of Disaster Management
3) Types of Disasters
4) Impact of Disasters
5) Response mechanisms to Disasters
6) Risk Tolerance Determination
MEANING OF TERMS
A Hazard: A hazard is a dangerous phenomenon, substance, human activity or condition that may cause the loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihoods and services, social and economic disruption, or environmental damage.
A Natural Hazard: Natural processes or phenomenon that may cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihoods and services, social and economic disruption, or environmental damage. A Geological Hazard: Geological process or phenomenon that may cause lo loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihoods and services, social and economic disruption, or environmental damage.
A Technological Hazard: A hazard originating from technological or industrial conditions, including accidents, dangerous procedures, infrastructure failures or specific human activities, that may cause loss of life, injury, illness or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihoods and services, social and economic disruption, or environmental damage.
A Disaster: A disaster is a serious disruption of the functioning of a community or society causing widespread human, material, economic or environmental loses which exceed the ability of the affected community/society to cope using its own resources.
A Disaster Risk: The potential disaster losses, in lives, health status, livelihoods, assets and services, which could occur to a particular community or a society over some specified future time period.
Disaster Risk Reduction: The concept and practice of reducing disaster risks through systematic efforts to analyze and manage the causal factors of disasters, including through reduced exposure to hazards, lessened vulnerability of people and property, wise management of land and the environment, and improved preparedness for adverse events.
Vulnerability: The characteristics and circumstances of a community, system or asset that makes it susceptible to the damaging effects of a hazard.
Disaster Risk Management: The systematic process of using administrative directives, organisations, and operational skills and capacities to implement strategies, policies and improved coping capacities in order to lessen the adverse impacts of hazards and the possibility of disaster.
Disaster Management:
The International Federation of Red Cross & Red Crescent Societies defines disaster management as the organisation and management of resources and responsibilities for dealing with all the humanitarian aspects of emergencies, in particular preparedness, response and recovery in order to lessen the impact of disasters
Disaster Management is a continuous and integrated process of planning, organizing, coordinating and implementing measures which are necessary or expedient for:
 Prevention of danger or threat of any disaster
 Mitigation or reduction of risk of any disaster or its severity or consequences;
 Capacity – building
 Preparedness to deal with any disaster;
 Prompt response to any threatening disaster situation or disaster;
 Assessing the severity or magnitude of effects of any disaster;
 Evacuation; rescue and relief;
 Rehabilitation & reconstruction.
IMPORTANCE OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT
i. Disaster management efforts aim to reduce or avoid the potential losses from hazards
ii. Assure prompt and appropriate assistance to the victims of a disaster, and achieve a rapid and effective recovery.
iii. To make organisations remain safe and functional during and after disasters.
iv. To mitigate against serious damage to life and property of the affected people
v. To guard destruction of the existing infrastructure and set back the development process.
vi. To make organisation proactive removing people and property from a threatened location facilitating timely and effective rescue, relief and rehabilitation at the place of disaster
vii. Helps in protecting people and reducing trauma among people.
viii. Provides valuable insights into the underlying factors of vulnerability to hazards
and the features of those hazards.
ix. Assist organisations in safeguarding efforts to create and expand enabling conditions for sustainable poverty alleviation and development.
TYPES OF DISASTERS
Natural Disasters
Natural Disasters are naturally occurring physical phenomena caused either rapid or slow onset events that have immediate impacts on human health and secondary impacts causing further death and suffering.
These disasters can be:
 Geophysical (e.g. Earthquakes, Landslides, Tsunamis and Volcanic Activity)
 Hydrological (e.g. Avalanches and Floods)
 Climatological (e.g. Extreme Temperatures, Drought and Wildfires)
 Meteorological (e.g. Cyclones and Storms/Wave Surges)
 Biological (e.g. Disease Epidemics and Insect/Animal Plagues)
Discussion of Specific Disasters
i. Floods -Floods are sudden and temporary inundation of a large area as an overflowing of rivers or reservoirs.
Causes -Floods are caused rains, high winds, cyclones, tsunami, melting snow or dam burst. Flood can happen gradually or can happen suddenly due to heavy rains, breach of the water storage and control structures, spillover. Siltation of the rivers and reservoirs, and this can enhance the incidence and magnitude of floods.
Effects of floods
Casualties
Human and livestock death due to drowning, serious injuries and outbreak of epidemics like diarrhea, cholera, jaundice or viral infections are common problems faced in flood affected areas. Even wells, other source of drinking water get submerged resulting in acute shortage of safe drinking water during floods. Consequently often people are forced to drink the contaminated floodwater, which may cause serious diseases. Structural damage During floods mud huts and buildings built on weak foundations collapse endangering human lives and property. Damage may also be cause to roads, rail, dams, monuments, crops and cattle. Floods may uproot trees and may cause landslides and soil erosion. Material loss Household articles including eatables, electronic goods, beds, clothes, furniture get submerged in water and get spoilt all materials mounted on ground e.g. food stock, equipment, vehicles, livestock, machinery, salt pan and
fishing boats can be submerged and spoilt. Utilities damage
Utilities such as water supply, sewerage, communication lines, power-lines, transportation network and railways are put at risk. Crop loss
Apart from the loss of human and cattle life, floods cause severe devastation of standing agricultural crops. Floods water spoils the stored food-grains or harvested crop.
Flood control
 Flood control can be achieved through various means.
 The floodwater can be reduced reducing the run-off water through afforestation. Forests promote rainwater percolation in the ground, thus recharging the groundwater and reducing the run-off water.
 Construction of dams also reduces flood water through storage. Dams can store water, which can not be accommodated in the river downstream may cause floods. Water can be released in a controlled manner from the dam.
 Desilting, deepening and increasing embankment increase the capacity of a river/channel/drain.
Management of floods The flood damage can be considerable reduced and loss of human lives can prevented
through proper planning of flood control and management measures.
 Identification of flood prone areas
A rational planning for flood management involves identification the flood prone areas and frequency and magnitude of flooding in these areas.
 Flood forecasting
Normally there is a reasonable timely warning alerting people and moving them to safer area well in time. Measurement of intensity of rainfall in the catchment area provide sufficient clue to hydrology engineers to calculate the possible submergence area along a river well before the flooding occurs. Accordingly expected run-off volume people can be warned to evacuate the likely areas to be flooded and advise to go to safer places along with their belongings including livestock. In India has a large network of rain measuring
stations, flood warnings are issued the Central Water Commission (CWC), Irrigation and Flood Control Department and Water Resources Department.
 Land use planning
Land use planning is very important for all the developmental activities. No major development should be permitted in flood prone areas. If construction is unavoidable it should be able to withstand the flood forces. Buildings should be constructed on elevated areas. Afforestation should be encouraged.
Deforestation in the catchments areas should be discouraged because deforestation results in excessive run off water and causes soil erosion, which is the main cause of river siltation resulting in floods. Any construction, which causes obstruction in drainage flow, should not be permitted. Encroachment of the storm water drains should not be allowed. Reducing the risk of floods.
 Some precautionary measures are as follows –
 Build houses away from flood prone area.
 Keep yourself alert and updated to weather and flood forecasting information.
 In case evacuation warnings are issued, immediately go to the shelters provided.
 When you are moving to a shelter, move your valuable articles to safer elevated places so that they are not destroyed flood water.
 Store extra food, such as rice, pulses etc. for emergency.
 Do not touch any loose electric wire to avoid electrocution.
 Do not spread rumours or listen to them.
 Make provision for adults and children who need special diet.
 After the flood is over, get yourself and your family members inoculated against diseases and seek medical care for injured and sick.
 Clear the house and dwellings of debris.
 Report any loss to the revenue authorities
ii.Droughts- Drought is an event that results from lower than normal expected rainfall over a season or period. The low rainfall is insufficient to meet the needs of human beings, plants, animals and agriculture. Short fall in rain results in drying of rivers, lakes, reservoirs and drying of wells due to excessive withdrawal and poor recharge of ground water and loss of crop yield due to shortage of water are some of the main indicators of drought.
Causes of drought
Drought occurs due to shortage of rainfall.As per Meteorological Department if rainfall is deficient more than 10% of the annual average rainfall, the condition is said to be that of drought. The severity of drought is determined the extent of deviation of rainfall from the average. In the recent past frequency of periods of drought have increasing due to deforestation and environmental degradation.
Effects of drought
 Drought has severe effects on agriculture.
 To start with drought affects mostly rainfed crops and subsequently the irrigated crops. The herdsman, landless labours, subsistence farmers, women, children and farm animals are most affected.
 Crop failure or food shortage leading to large scale starvation and death
 Affects dairy activities, timber and fisheries.
 Increases unemployment.
 Depletion of ground water.
 Increases energy consumption for pumping water from deep aquifers.
 Reduces energy production in hydro-electric power plants.
 Loss of biodiversity; and reduced landscape quality.
 Causes health problems,
 Increased poverty,
 reduced quality of life and social unrest leading to migration.
Management of drought
The adverse effects of drought can be minimised if some measures are taken. A regular monitoring of rainfall, water availability in reservoirs, lakes and rivers as well as in comparison it with the demand. When water availability decreases than demand, water
consumption need to be reduced adopting various water conservation measures.
 These include:
 Economizing water consumption, increasing water use efficiency, reducing wastage, reusing the wastewater for inferior uses.
 Use of efficient methods of irrigation and sowing low water-consuming crops are some important measures to overcome drought.
 Rain water harvesting increases water availability. Water harvesting is done either allowing the run-off water from all the catchment areas to a common point and storing it in a reservoir or allowing it to percolate into the ground so far recharging groundwater
iii. Earthquake-Earthquake is a sudden release of energy accumulated in deformed rocks of earth crust causing the ground to tremble or shake. Earthquake can occur suddenly any time of the year without any warning causing severe loss of life and
property . The intensity of an earthquake is related to the amount of energy released when rocks give way to the forces within the earth. It is measured with the help of an instrument known as seismograph.
The intensity is measured on Richter scale (after inventor C.F. Richter).
The following values indicate degree of damage. Intensity on Richter Scale Extent of damage upto:
 3 No damage
 3-5 Cracks in old building
 5-7 Cracks in roads
 Above 8 Collapsing of Buildings
Causes of Earthquakes
 Earthquakes are natural ways of releasing energy earth. An earthquake occurs in certain pockets of the earth which has geological faults. Such areas have already been identified.
Effects of eathquakes
Structural damage Earthquakes may cause physical damage to the buildings, roads, dams and monuments. High rise buildings or building built on weak foundations are especially susceptible to earthquake damage. Household articles including electronic goods and furniture get damaged Human and livestock deaths or serious injuries from collapsing of building are common followed outbreak of epidemics like cholera, diarrhoea, and infectious diseases.
Utilities such as water supply, sewerage, communication lines, power-lines, transportation network, and railways get damaged.
Management of earthquakes
The effects can be minimized if some of the following measures are taken:
 The buildings should be designed especially in earthquake prone areas in such a manner that they can withstand the stress of earthquake
 Physical characteristics of soil should be analysed in order to ensure the strength to withstand the earthquake.
 Generally building design is approved the concerned municipal authorities according to build laws and safety requirements.
 Training of the builders, architects, contractors, designers, house owners and government officials is important.
 Some of the precautionary measures in the event of an earthquake are as follows: Move out in the open;
 Keep calm, do not rush and panic, never use lift, keep away from windows, mirrors and furniture;
 Stand under strong beams that may not fall or creep under the dining table or a strong bed;
 If you are under a building and unable to move, cover your head and body with your arms, pillows, blankets to protect yourself from falling objects;
 If in a multi storey building stay on the same floor. Do not use elevators or run towards the staircase;
 If travelling stop the vehicle away from building, walls, bridge, trees, electricity poles and wires;
 Check for structural damage and clear the blockage;
 Check for injuries. Apply first aid. Help others;
 If your home is badly damaged earthquake, come out immediately.
 Collect all emergency supplies like food, water, first aid kit, medicines, flash light or torch, candles, matchbox, clothes etc; if possible;
 Keep away from buildings especially old and tall ones, electricity poles, wires .
iv. Cyclones-Cyclones are violent storms, often of vast extent, characterised strong and high winds rotating about a calm center of low atmospheric pressure. This center moves onwards, often with velocity of around 50 km/h. Cyclones strike suddenly though it takes time for them to build up. Cyclone is generally followed heavy rains causing floods. Satellite tracking can predict on possible affected areas and inhabitants fore-warned can be made for warning. Warning and evacuation is done along the projected path.
Effects of cyclones
 Light weight structures built of mud, wood, old buildings with weak walls and structure without proper anchorage to the foundation are at risk.
 The settlements located in low lying areas of coastal regions are directly vulnerable. Settlements in adjacent areas are vulnerable to floods, mudslide or landslide due to heavy rain.
 Telephone and electricity poles and wires, fences, light building structures such as thatched, tin sheds roofs, signboards, hoardings, fishing boats and trees are most vulnerable to cyclone damages.
 Due to heavy rains people and their property might be washed away in floods or blown away cyclone itself. The cyclone along in the coastal areas may cause sea waves to enter on land and flood it.
 This may cause saline water contamination of soil and water in the affected area, affecting water supply and severely affecting agricultural crops.
Management of cyclones
 It is important to identify the cyclone prone areas.
 No development should be permitted in cyclone – prone areas.
 The building should be designed to withstand forces of wind and floods.
 All the elements holding the structures need to be properly anchored to resist the uplift. Coastal green belt has been found very effective in minimizing the effects of cyclones.
 Such green belts (trees growing along the coast) need to be developed along the coasts.
v. Tsunami- Tsunami is also called seismic sea wave, or tidal wave, catastrophic ocean wave, usually caused a submarine earthquake occurring less than 50 km (30 miles) beneath the seafloor, with a magnitude greater than 6.5 on the Richter scale. Underwater or coastal landslides or volcanic eruptions also may cause a tsunami. The term tidal wave is more frequently used for such a wave, but it is a misnomer, for the wave has no connection with the tides. In a tsunami a train of simple, progressive oscillatory waves is propagated to great distances at the ocean surface in ever-widening circles, much like the waves produced a pebble falling into a shallow pool. The observation has enormous practical value, enabling seismologists to issue warnings to endangered coasts immediately after an earthquake and several hours before the arrival of the tsunami above. Three to five major oscillations generate most of the damage.
The effects of tsunami however, vary widely from place to place.
Effects of Tsunami
 The effects of tsunami are quite similar to those of cyclones or floods.
 Huge waves of sea water enters with great force and floods the land and washes away human settlements, agricultural crops and other properties.
 The famous tsunami of December 2004 has had devastating effects in many countries particularly in Indonesia, Malaysia, Srilanka, India etc.
 One large area of coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh and Tamilnadu. More than 2 lacs people died in 8 Asian countries including India.
Management of Tsunami
 The mitigation measures are quite similar to those for cyclone or flood.
2. Man-Made Disasters Man-Made Disasters as viewed the International Federation of Red Cross & Red
Crescent Societies are events that are caused humans which occur in or close to human settlements often caused as a results of Environmental or Technological
Emergencies. This can include:
 Environmental Degradation
 Pollution
 Accidents (e.g. Industrial, Technological and Transport usually involving the production, use or transport of hazardous materials)
i.Fires Fires are events of burning something. They are often destructive taking up toll of life and property. It is observed that more people die in a fire than in a cyclone, earthquake, floods and other natural disasters combined. Fires are a great threat to forests and wild life because they spread speedily and cause tremendous damage in a short time. In cities fires break out in home, jhuggis, buildings specially go downs and factories. Fire can spread to a large area. Many people may die of burns and asphyxiation. It may also cause contamination of air, water and soil, which may affect the crops, plants and animals,
and soil fertility.
Causes of fires -During summer months such fires results in casualties and enormous economic losses.
 Throwing burning matchsticks or cigarettes irresponsibility.
 Heating sources can cause fire in houses e.g. clothes may catch fire while cooking on kerosene stove or gas stove.
 Cooking accidents are a major cause of fire at home. Fire can result due to unattended
cooking.
 A short circuit in an electric wiring can cause fire. Overheating of electric appliances, poor wiring connections, use of sub-standard quality appliances can also result in a fire.
 Rubbish and waste materials often lying on roadsides or near houses may catch fire when people throw burning matchstick or cigarette butt.
 Storage and transportation of inflammable material or explosive chemicals without proper precautions may cause fires.
 Forest fires may result from human negligence or carelessness.
Effects of fires
 Casualities Death of humans and livestock may occur due to burning or serious injuries from fires.
 In rural areas often the entire harvested crop stored in securely may catch fire and burn to ashes resulting in heavy loss to the owner.
Management of fires
 Obey fire safety rules and remember the evacuation route in case of fire.
 Keep and handle inflammable materials with utmost care.
 Keep a fire extinguisher in the house and learn how to use it.
 When you leave home, make sure to shut off all electrical and gas appliances.
 Do not plug several devices into one socket.
 Keep matches away from children
 Do not block access routes cupboards or any furniture
 In the event of a fire call the fire department immediately.
 In the smoke filled corridor, crawl on all floors or on your belly as the smoke is less on the floor.
 Find at least two ways to escape from your home.
 Make sure that you remove all the waste material from work place and home on regular basis.
 Hazardous materials such as paints, solvents, adhesives, chemicals or gas cylinders should be kept in separate storage, well away from fire.
 Fire crackers is a major cause of fire in our country. Use them carefully under supervision of elders
ii. Road, rail and air traffic accidents
Road accidents -Road networks are developed for better connectivity and service. Increased number of vehicles, violation of traffic rules, speeding, drunken driving and poor maintenance of vehicles as well as of roads are some of the main causes of road accidents. In order to avoid accidents following safety measures can be adopted:
 Look on either side of the road before crossing.
 Use zebra crossing while crossing the road foot.
 Wear helmet while riding a two-wheeler.
 Use seat belt provided in your car.
 Drive only if you possess a proper driving license.
 Be familiar with road markings and honour them.
 Maintain a safety distance from the vehicle in front.
 Do not jump lanes. It becomes difficult for other vehicles, on the road to anticipate your move.
 Do not be rash and do not try to overtake unnecessarily.
 The best way to be safe on roads is to follow “lane driving”
 While driving avoid sudden acceleration and deceleration
 Replace the worn tyres and faulty headlamps
 Check the tyre pressure, radiator water, brake oil and fuel frequently
 Dip your beam whenever you spot an oncoming vehicle.
 Follow the maintenance schedule prescribed the manufacturer.
 Overcome impatience, anger and intoxication during driving. Road rage is dangerous.
 In case a mishap occurs stay calm.
 In case of fire, try to get out as early as possible and do not worry about the baggage
Rail accident -The most common type of rail accident is derailment due to human error, sabotage or natural landslide in a hilly track, or fire. Rail accidents lead to large number of casualties and material damage. Railways incur heavy loss due to such accidents every
year. Some of the common safety measures are:-
 At railway crossings pay attention to the signal and the swing barrier. Do not get underneath and try to get across.
 In case of a unmanned crossing, get down from the vehicle and look at either sides
of the track before crossing.
 Do not stop the train on a bridge or tunnel where evacuation is not possible.
 Do not carry inflammable material in a train.
 Do not lean out of a moving train.
 Do not smoke in train.
 Do not pull the emergency cord unnecessarily.
Air accidents -Air accidents may occur due to technical problems, fire, poor landing and take-off, weather conditions, hijacking, bombing etc. Some of the common safety measures are:
• Pay attention to the flight crew safety demonstration.
• Carefully read the safety card in the pocket.
• Know where is the nearest emergency exit and learn how to open it.
• Always keep your seatbelt fastened when seated.
• Stay calm, listen to the crew members and follow their instructions.
• Before you try to open any emergency door yourself, look outside the window.
If you see a fire outside the door, do not open it or the flame may spread into the
cabin. Try to use an alternate route for escape.
• Remember, smoke rises. So try to stay down if there is smoke in the cabin.
• If you have a cloth, put it over your nose and mouth.
Industrial accidents -Industrial accidents can be due to explosion, fire and leakage of toxic or hazardous chemicals and lead to heavy loss of life and material. Leakage of chemicals and explosion may be due to human error, technological failure or geological hazards like earthquakes, flood etc. Fire in an industry may result from human error or electrical faults (short circuit).
Effects of Industrial Accidents
 The industrial premises and immediate surroundings are at high risk in the event of an industrial accident.
 Employees and residents of nearlocalities and their live-stock and crops in nearareas are severely affected.
 The environment over a large area gets polluted.
 Hazardous chemicals released into the atmosphere or into a water body may travel long distances and may even damage the entire ecosystem around the industrial area.
 Explosion or fire or leakage of corrosive chemicals severely damage structures. If the chemical is in gaseous form the geographical spread is fast and wide
 Many people may die either due to mechanical damage from explosion or fire or due to toxicity of the poisonous chemicals.
 The routes of exposure to chemical released from an accidents are from inhalation, eye exposure, skin contact and ingestion.
 The polluting agents can have both immediate or long term effects
 The immediate effects include death or other symptoms like dizziness, headache, irritation etc.
 The long term effects may include cancer, heart failure, brain damage, disfunction of immune system, deformation, genetic disorders or congenital(birth) disorders in children.
Management of Industral Accidents Inventory of hazardous chemicals It is important to have an inventory of hazardous
chemicals along with their quality, storage locations, characteristics along with possible hazard associated with hazardous chemicals and this informed all employees and people living in the neighbourhood should informed about the potential risk. The inventory as far as possible high risk areas demarcated and displayed along with indicating affected zone and safe routes for evacuation in the event of emergency
 Location of industries Industries should not be sited in residential areas. A large buffer zone, in form of a green belt, for separating an industrial area from residential areas
 . Community preparedness The community should be aware of the hazardous installations and know how to combat the situation. Some members of the community should monitor the potential risk and participate in safety training organised industries.
 Other measures Limit storage capacity of the toxic chemicals. Improve firefighting capability, warning systems and measures for preventing pollution dispersion.
 Develop emergency relief and evacuation planning for employees and nearsettlements. Adopt insurance for employees and surrounding population which is mandatory under the law.
Epidemics and Pandemics
An Epidemic is a disease that affects a large number of people within a community, population, or region.
A Pandemic is an epidemic that’s spread over multiple countries or continents. Pandemic Emergencies may occur as a consequence of natural or man-made disasters.
These have included the following epidemics:
Corona Virus Disease (COVID 19), Ebola, Cholera, Dengue, Malaria, Yellow Fever, Zika,
Avian Fever
Cause of Epidemics-The outbreak of diseases is mainly due to poor sanitary condition leading to contamination of water or spread of disease form breeding of the disease vectors. Other factors include seasonal changes that favour breeding of insects. Vectors, exposure of a non-immune population (eg tourists or migrants), poverty and overcrowding.
Effects of Epidemics
 Epidemic may cause mass illness or death.
 There are secondary effects such as disruption in the society and economic losses.
 Vulnerability is high among those who are poorly nourished, people living in unhygienic in sanitary conditions, poor quality of water supply, lack of access to health services
Management of Epidemics
 Measures :Preventive public health measures needs to be strengthened.
 Personal protection through vaccination is an effective mitigation measure.
 Improvement of sanitary conditions, fumigation of vector breeding sites and
 proper disposal of domestic and municipal wastes greatly reduce chances of epidemic spread of diseases.
 Contingency plan for dealing with the epidemics that are likely to occur in the region.
 Early warning system and regular surveillance are primary requirements so as to mount an effective control response in early stages to prevent any outbreaks Complex Emergencies
Some disasters can result from multiple hazards, or, more often, to a complex combination of both natural and man-made causes which involve a break-down of authority, looting and attacks on strategic installations, including conflict situations and war. These can include:
 Food Insecurity
 Epidemics
 Armed Conflicts
 Displaced Populations
According to International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) these Complex
Emergencies are typically characterized by:
 Extensive Violence
 Displacements of Populations
 Loss of Life
 Widespread Damage to both Societies and Economies
 Need for Large-scale, Humanitarian Assistance across Multiple Agencies
 Political and Military Constraints which impact or prevent Humanitarian Assistance
 Increased Security Risks for Humanitarian Relief Workers
 Pandemic Emergencies
IMPACT OF DISASTERS
i. Displaced Populations
One of the most immediate effects of natural disasters is population displacement.
When countries are ravaged earthquakes or other powerful forces of nature, many people have to abandon their homes and seek shelter in other regions. A large influx of refugees can disrupt accessibility of health care and education, as well as food
supplies and clean water.
ii. Health Risks
Aside from the obvious immediate danger that natural disasters present, the secondary effects can be just as damaging. Severe flooding can result in stagnant water that allows breeding of waterborne bacteria and malaria-carrying mosquitos. Without emergency relief from international aid organizations and others, death tolls can rise even after the immediate danger has passed.
iii. Food Scarcity
After natural disasters, food often becomes scarce. Thousands of people around the world go hungry as a result of destroyed crops and loss of agricultural supplies, whether it happens suddenly in a storm or gradually in a drought. As a result, food prices rise, reducing families’ purchasing power and increasing the risk of severe malnutrition or worse. The impacts of hunger following an earthquake, typhoon or hurricane can be tremendous, causing lifelong damage to children’s development.
iv. Emotional Aftershocks
Natural disasters can be particularly traumatic for young children. Confronted with scenes of destruction and the deaths of friends and loved ones, many children develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a serious psychological condition resulting from extreme trauma. Left untreated, children suffering from PTSD can be prone to lasting psychological damage and emotional distress.
v. Structural damage
During floods, cyclones earth quakes mud huts and buildings built on weak foundations collapse endangering human lives and property. Damage may also be cause to roads, rail, dams, monuments, crops and cattle.
vi. Material loss
Household articles including eatables, electronic goods, beds, clothes, furniture get spoilt all materials mounted on ground after floods ,earth quake ,cyclones e.g. food stock, equipment, vehicles, livestock, machinery,
vii. Utilities damage
Utilities such as water supply, sewerage, communication lines, power-lines, transportation network and railways are put at risk.
viii. Industrial accidents have long term effects may include cancer, heart failure, brain damage, disfunction of immune system, deformation, genetic disorders or congenital(birth) disorders in children.
RESPONSE MECHANISMS TO DISASTERS
Phases in Disaster Risk Management
Disaster Risk Management outlines objectives and activities in the prevention, preparedness, response and recovery phase
Prevention: Prevention measures seek to eliminate or reduce the impact of hazards and/or to reduce the susceptibility and increase the resilience of the community subject to the impact of those hazards. Prevention covers a range of activities and strategies individuals, communities, businesses and governments. Prevention is a continuous phase that must be carried out at all times.
Preparedness: Pre-disaster activities that are undertaken within the context of disaster risk management and are based on sound risk analysis. This includes the development/enhancement of an overall preparedness strategy, policy, institutional structure, warning and forecasting capabilities, and plans that define measures geared to helping at-risk communities safeguard their lives and assets being alert to hazards and taking appropriate action in the face of an imminent threat or an actual disaster. Response: Involves the provision of emergency services and public assistance during or immediately after a disaster in order to save lives, reduce health impacts,
ensure public safety and meet the basic subsistence needs (food, water and sanitation, shelter and protection) of the people affected disasters. Recovery: Recovery activities address reconstruction, rehabilitation and re establishment demands across physical, social, emotional, psychological, environmental and economic elements. It is aimed at the restoration and improvement, where appropriate, of facilities, livelihoods and living conditions of disaster-affected communities, to a more resilient standard with the aim to reduce the need for significant expenditure on recovery in the future. Recovery begins soon after the emergency phase has ended, and should be based on pre-existing strategies and policies that facilitate clear institutional responsibilities for recovery action and
enable public participation.
Disaster Response / Relief Discussed
“The provision of emergency services and public assistance during or immediately after a disaster in order to save lives, reduce health impacts, ensure public safety and meet the basic subsistence needs of the people affected” Some response actions, such as the supply of temporary housing and water supplies, may extend well into the recovery stage. Rescue from immediate danger and stabilization of the physical and emotional condition of survivors is the primary aims of disaster response/relief, which go hand in hand with the recovery of the dead and the restoration of essential services such as water and power.
Coordinated multi-agency response is vital to this stage of Disaster Management in order to reduce the impact of a disaster and its long-term results with relief activities including:
 Rescue
 Relocation
 Provision Food and Water
 Provision Emergency Health Care
 Prevention of Disease and Disability
 Repairing Vital Services e.g. Telecommunications, Transport
 Provision Temporary Shelter
Disaster Recovery
Vulnerability of communities often continues for long after the initial crisis is over. Disaster Recovery refers to those programmes which go beyond the provision of immediate relief to assist those who have suffered the full impact of a disaster and include the following activities:
 Rebuilding Infrastructure e.g. Homes, Schools, Hospitals, Roads
 Health Care and Rehabilitation
 Development Activities e.g. building human resources for health
 Development Policies and Practices to avoid or mitigate similar situations in future
RISK TOLERANCE DETERMINATION
Definition: Risk tolerance
Risk tolerance is the degree, volume or amount of risk that an organization can withstand. It indicates how sensitive organizations, stakeholders, and people are towards risks. High tolerance often means that organizations welcome high risks while
tolerance tells otherwise. Risk tolerance is the amount of risk that an investor is comfortable taking or the degree of uncertainty that an investor is able to handle. Risk tolerance often varies with age, income, and financial goals A determination must be made on the internal shortfalls organization which may cause failure as well as the external and sometimes uncertain risk drivers. The determination of the risk tolerance level depends on a number of factors. The ability to respond dynamically to changing events, the ability to withstand losses and remain a going concern, the competitive landscape, and the regulatory environment all shape the risk tolerance level Factors that influence Risk Tolerance
1. Timeline
Each investor will adopt a different time horizon based on their investment plans. Generally, more risk can be taken if there is more time. An individual who needs a certain sum of money at the end of fifteen years can take more risk than an individual who needs the same amount the end of five years. It is due to the fact that the market has shown an upward trend over the years. However, there are constant lows in the short term.
2. Goals
Financial goals differ from individual to individual. To accumulate the highest amount of money possible is not the sole purpose of financial planning for many. The amount required to achieve certain goals is calculated, and an investment strategy to deliver such returns is usually pursued. Therefore, each individual will take on a different risk tolerance based on goals.
3. Age
Usually, young individuals should be able to take more risks than older individuals. Young individuals have the capability to make more money working and have more time on their hands to handle market fluctuations.
4. Portfolio size
The larger the portfolio, the more tolerant to risk. An investor with a Ksh 1million portfolio will be able to take more risk than an investor with a Ksh5 million portfolio. If value drop, the percentage loss is much less in a larger portfolio when compared to a smaller portfolio.
5. Investor comfort level
Each investor handles risk differently. Some investors are naturally more comfortable with taking risks than others. On the contrary, market volatility can be extremely stressful for some investors. Risk tolerance is, therefore, directly related to how comfortable an investor is while taking risks.

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