This paper is intended to equip the candidate with the knowledge, skills and attitude that will enable him/her to communicate clearly and concisely orally and in writing in formal and informal situations.


A candidate who passes this paper should be able to:

  • Communicate effectively in an organisation.
  • Prepare and design different types of business documents
  • Hold effective face to face and telephone conversations.
  • Use non-verbal cues effectively in communication
  • Demonstrate effective presentation skills.
  • Apply the protocols of team and virtual groups’ communication.
  • Write formal reports and proposals.
  • Apply information technology in communication.
  • Communicate ethically.


2.1 Introduction to communication

  • Meaning of communication
  • Role of communication in an organisation
  • Elements of communication
  • The communication process
  • Principles of effective communication
  • Essential of an effective communication system
  • Barriers to effective communication

2.2. Types of communication

  • Formal and informal communication
  • Flow of communication in an organisation
  • Grapevine communication
  • Internal and external communication
  • Interpersonal and intrapersonal communication
  • Cross-cultural communication
  • E-mail
  • Visual communication – graphs/charts/tables/diagrams/pictures

2.2.1 Oral communication

  • Meaning of oral communication
  • Importance of oral communication
  • Types of oral communication-face to face and telephone conversations
  • Effective listening-The listening process, principles of effective listening, listening techniques, barriers to effective listening
  • Interviews-types, purpose, preparation and conduct of interviews
  • Persuasive communication- meaning, objectives, creating persuasive messages, approaches to persuasion

2.2.2 Non-verbal communication

  • Meaning and importance of non-verbal communication
  • Forms of non-verbal communication
  • Effective use of non-verbal communication
  • Barriers to effective non-verbal communication`

2.3 Writing skills

  • Sentence construction and paragraph development
  • Business letters
  • Memorandum
  • Posters and notices
  • Forms and questionnaires
  • Circulars and newsletters
  • Advertisements and publicity materials
  • Documents used in business transactions – letter of enquiry, catalogue, quotation, purchase order, invoice, credit note, debit note, others
  • V and resume


2.4 Public speaking and presentation

  • Effective presentation skills
  • Audience analysis
  • Selecting and researching the topic
  • Preparation and organisation of an effective presentation
  • Structure of presentation
  • Presentation aids
  • Public speeches-structure and delivery of public speeches
  • PowerPoint presentations

2.5 Group and team communication

  • Group communication networks
  • Team communication
  • Communicating in virtual groups and teams-group e-mails, what’s app groups, social media
  • Meetings- types, role of members, preparation, conduct, documents used in meetings
  • Conferences and symposia

2.6 Report and proposal writing

  • Types and purpose of reports
  • Structure and content of reports
  • Types and uses of proposals
  • Structure and content of proposals
  • Writing of formal reports and proposals

2.7 Information technology and communication

  • Role and impact of technology in communication
  • Communication networks- internet, intranet and extranet
  • Teleconferencing and video conferencing
  • Webinar
  • Wireless technology

2.8 Ethics in communication

  • Role of ethical communication in an organisation
  • Principles of ethical communication
  • Ethical issues in communication
  • Enhancing ethical communication in an organisation
  • Factors influencing ethical communication
  • Ethical dilemmas in communication
  • Handling ethical dilemmas in communication



  1. Business communication today; Pearson International edition by Courtland L. Bovee and John Thrill
  2. Mastering communication; 5th edition by Nicky Stanton
  3. Communication for Business A practical approach; 4 th edition by Shirley Taylor
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